What Are The Major Cities In Turkey?

major cities

What Are The Major Cities In Turkey?

What Are the Major Cities in Turkey?

A big city, often known as a metropolis, is a substantial economic, political, and cultural center for a nation or area and an essential hub for regional or global connections, trade, and communications. The word derives from Old Greek and refers to the “mother city” of a colony (in the ancient meaning), i.e., the city that sent forth immigrants. This was subsequently broadened to include any municipality considered a hub of a particular activity and any big, significant city in a country.

In 1984, the first metropolitan regulations or criteria were created. Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir are the three most populated cities in Turkey. Many second-level municipalities have been made in each metropolitan municipality. Adana, Bursa, Gaziantep, and Konya all received new urban municipalities in 1986. Kayseri was added to the group after two years, bringing the total to eight. Antalya, Diyarbakir, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Mersin, Kocaeli, and Samsun all received new metropolitan municipalities in 1993. Sakarya was likewise designated as a metropolitan municipality after the 1999 earthquake.

Before 2004, only urban areas with populations of more than 750,000 were designated as metropolitan areas. However, in Istanbul and Kocaeli in 2004, the idea of the metropolitan municipality was revised, and metropolitan municipality boundaries would now overlap with provincial borders. This was expanded to include additional metropolitan municipalities in 2012. As a result, all provinces with more than 750,000 were designated as metropolitan municipalities, and the number of urban municipalities has increased dramatically.

Metropolitan municipalities

Date of establishment

Population (2013)

Population (2019)

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1. Adana – Adana Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Adana lies in Turkey’s southeastern Mediterranean. The metropolis of 14,000 square kilometers is situated on the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers. With a population of 2.2 million people, it is Turkey’s sixth biggest city. The city is located at the foot of the Taurus Mountains and the physical and cultural heart of Cukurova.  In this perspective, Adana, with a hinterland of about 7.2 million people, is positioned in the center of the market. Adana has a total shoreline of 160 kilometers in the Mediterranean Sea’s south, and the Mediterranean climate is evident in this location.  The population of Adana in 2019 is 1,768,860 people.

Adana History

Adana has always been a popular tourist destination due to its lush plains and commerce routes that run via its mighty rivers and dams. However, according to the National Regional Development Strategy developed by Turkey’s Ministry of Development, only Cukurova was identified as a prospective metropolitan region in Turkey, following Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir.

Adana Economy

Adana was one of Turkey’s earliest industrialized areas. The product richness and accessibility brought the industrial field to raw resources in Cukurova, one of the world’s most significant plains. Cotton production started to expand quickly in the rich soil of Adana from the second part of the nineteenth century. As a result, ginning and textile industries were established, which were among the earliest in Turkey. In 1924, Adana hosted the first international exhibition in the Republic’s history, the “Agricultural Fair,” The first private banks were established.

Today, approximately 40,000 companies operate in Adana. Exports of Adana have increased by 76% in the last ten years and reached 2 billion dollars. According to 2018 data, the city has 2.26 billion dollars in imports and a total international trade value of more than 4 billion dollars. Because of its closeness to the Middle East, the city has been a magnet for multinational enterprises, with 386 foreign investors.  Adana has 539 thousand hectares of agricultural land. The city is the market leader in Turkey for citrus fruits, maize, watermelon, soybean, peanut, sunflower, cotton, and honey, with a total agricultural output of TL 7.7 billion. 16% of the full manufacturing industry employment is in the food and beverage manufacturing sector. In recent years the city’s entire agriculture and food sector contribution to exports is 27%. The city’s overall agriculture and food sector contribution to exports have been 27 percent in recent years. There are around 4,000 restaurants and 1,000 street food sellers in the city. Agriculture, food, and beverage sectors are the building elements of the Adana economy in this setting.

The latter of these industries provides significant contributions to the city in the form of new gastronomic innovations. Adana has around 100 hotels, motels, and other lodging establishments with a total bed capacity of 11,500. In 2018, about 1 million 200 thousand national and foreign tourists came to Adana. In addition, 3711 individuals were traveling to Adana for medical care. Adana’s overall tourism income in 2018 was about 279 million dollars. Adana has a significant human resource pool with 60.000 students in two institutions and a workforce potential of 1.1 million.

2. Ankara – Ankara Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Ankara, formerly known as Angora, is Turkey’s capital and is in the country’s northwest. It lies approximately 125 miles (200 kilometers) south of the Black Sea, near the Hatip, Su, and Cubek rivers. Ankara has a population of 5.663 million people (2020).

Ankara History

Turkish history in Ankara in the Byzantine era, both the Persians and the Arabs assaulted Ankara. After the Turks captured Ankara in 1073, the Crusaders Raymond IV of Toulouse pushed them out in 1101. But despite the Byzantines’ efforts, the city remained a source of strife between the Seljuqs and their Turkish border lord adversaries. Following the Seljuq conquest in 1143, the rulers of the Seljuq dynasty fought for control of the city. The establishment of the Seljuq Empire caused Ankara to fall. The second Sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, Orhan (Orkhan), gained control of the city in 1354 and, in 1360, it became a part of the Ottoman lands. Timur’s invasion of Anatolia surrounded Ankara (Tamerlane). After being reclaimed by Ottoman Empire in 1403, the city gained new importance as a trade and urban hub due to its caravan route to the East. The Turkish nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk established his headquarters in Ankara, the focus of the resistance movement against both the Ottoman sultan’s authority and the invading Greek forces. 1923, Ankara was chosen as the capital of Turkey.

Ankara Economy

Ankara, Turkey’s capital city, is the country’s second-biggest and most important economic hub on a national and worldwide scale. Ankara’s solid and stable economy has profited from its geographical location, modern infrastructure, and increasingly youthful population with highly qualified labor. In addition, the proximity of markets in the EU, Middle East, North Africa, Asia, and Russia is a driving force for foreign capital and multinational enterprises. Furthermore, Ankara was chosen as the location for almost 2,300 such businesses.

Ankara’s large commerce volume provides an opportunity for investors and entrepreneurs looking to execute national and global scale manufacturing and investment. Ankara realized roughly 5% of Turkey’s total foreign trade volume in 2019, with a foreign trade volume of 19,6 billion dollars.

3. Antalya – Antalya Buyuksehir Belediyesi

With over one million people, Antalya, situated on Anatolia’s southwest coast and bordered by the Taurus Mountains, is the biggest Turkish city on the Mediterranean coast outside of the Aegean area. Antalya’s population is expected to be 1,254,000 in 2020. Antalya ranks eighth in terms of population and national income. Antalya is Turkey’s number one metropolitan tourism city. The city’s economy is based on tourism. An estimated 6-7 million tourists visit Antalya each year, amounting to 35% of all visitors to Turkey.

Antalya History

Antalya has been continuously inhabited from its founding in the second century BC by Attalus II, a Pergamon monarch who named the city Attaleai after himself. Before falling under Ottoman control, the town was held by the Romans, Byzantines, and Seljuks. Antalya’s symbol is the magnificent, fluted minaret of the Yivli Minareli Mosque in the city center, built in the 13th century by the Seljuk ruler Alaeddin Keykubad I. The same Period’s Karatay Medrese (theological college) in the Kaleici region displays the finest of Seljuk stone sculptures. The 16th century Murat Pasa Mosque, notable for its tile design, and the 18th century Tekeli Mehmet Pasa Mosque is the city’s two most significant Ottoman mosques. The beautiful late-nineteenth-century Iskele Mosque is cut stone and placed on four pillars above a natural spring next to the marina. The Hidirlik Kulesi (tower) was most likely built in the second century as a lighthouse. The Kesik Minaret Mosque, now a church, bears witness to the city’s lengthy history via a series of Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ottoman restorations. In celebration of Emperor Hadrian’s visit to Antalya in 130 AD, a magnificently adorned three-arched gate was erected inside the city fortifications.

Antalya Economy

Antalya is considered the tourist industry’s backbone in Turkey. Antalya welcomes tourists all year, and a growing number of hotels are open all year. The tourist industry’s rapid diversification aids this tendency into hunting, winter sports, hiking, health, and convention groups. At the same time, specialization in these tourist sub-sectors is growing. Here is more information about Antalya.

4. Aydin – Aydin Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Aydin Province is a southern Turkish province in the Aegean Region. The population of Aydin in 2021 is 186,750 people.

Aydin History

The ancient Thracians built Aydin, which was formerly known as Tralles. The city was constructed and rebuilt by Spartans, Phrygians, Ionians, Lydians, Persians, and Ancient Romans in an earthquake-prone region. The Seljuk Turks gained control of the area in 1186, followed by the Aydinid Anatolian beylik. The town was known as Aydin Guzelhisar, and the Ottoman Empire conquered it in 1426.

Aydin Economy

Aydin is well-known for its cotton and grain production. It also has many olive trees. Some residents made olive oil—many small-scale businesses export olive oil to other nations.

In recent decades, Aydin has expanded beyond its historical position as a hub for agricultural goods, establishing a more diverse economy that is increasingly based on services. Adnan Menderes University, named after Efeler’s favorite son, Aydin Adnan Menderes, Turkey’s prime minister during the 1950s, opened in 1992 as part of this effort. The city’s position, barely an hour’s drive from the seaside, determines the city’s economic speed. Any Aydin inhabitant will have summer homes and investments in or near tourist hotspots like Kusadas, Guzelcamli, and Didim. But the city still has a peaceful rural market town feel to it, and its supremacy in producing a variety of agricultural goods, notably figs, still distinguishes Aydin Province. Most of this commerce is controlled and handled by Aydin itself.

5. Balikesir – Balikesir Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Balikesir is a city in Turkey’s Marmara region with 1.229 million people (2019). It was the capital of Karasi from 1341 to 1922.

Balikesir history

The Roman town of Hadrian is located close to present Balikesir. There, as the name suggests, the emperor Hadrian established the city. In A.D. 124, Hadrian arrived in the region and built their city bearing his name because of a successful bear hunt. The town was said to have comprised the castle, the farmhouse, the stud, and a few houses. It is believed that the current stadium was built in a tiny village. Members of the Roman and Pre-Byzantine dynasties had utilized this fortress as a hunting and holiday destination. Thus, the area was named Palaeokastron, which translates to “Old Castle,” in the Byzantine period.

In addition, when Turkmens arrived in Mysia from the Middle East, they named it Balukiser after the castle remains, as Hisar is the Turkish word for palace. The Ottomans annexed Balikesir city in 1345. An earthquake in 1898 devastated much of the town. There were just 51 structures that were not destroyed in the 1898 earthquake. Turkish students marched through the streets of Istanbul in 1914, chanting a song of hatred for Greeks. In April 1916, the Turks persecuted the Christian refugees from the villages surrounding Balikesser. They were denied bread in exchange for money. The women were advised to convert to Islam to avoid starvation. The authorities forced many young Greeks to Islam at the Government Headquarters in early June by the authorities. The invading Greeks captured Balikesir city on June 30, 1920, but the Turkish army reclaimed it on September 6, 1922. During the Turkish War of Independence, Balikesir was the primary base for fighting Greeks in Western Anatolia.

Balikesir Economy

The city’s economy is based on both agriculture and industry. Balikesir is also significant for animal breeding. Dairies abound on the city’s outskirts. In addition, the city is an agricultural center. Wheat, sunflowers, sugar beets, and other crops have rich goods in front of tomato and bean plantations. Melon and grapes are traditional crops. Balikesir, with its districts, is the 12th largest economy in Turkey. It is also known as the Anatolian Tigers.


Other important exports include olive-based goods. It is also a popular destination for domestic and international travelers, who use it as a base to explore the neighboring countryside, which is known for its beauty.


The city is famous for its borax deposit. The world’s most enormous known borax reserves, much of which remain unexplored, are in Central and Western Turkey, particularly in Eskisehir, Kutahya, and Balikesir. Furthermore, Turkey and the United States are the most extensive boron product manufacturers. Turkey provides almost half of the world’s annual demand from known deposits, which account for 72 percent of the world’s total.

6. Bursa – Bursa Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Bursa is the administrative capital of Bursa Province in northern Turkey. Bursa, Turkey’s fourth-most populous city and the second-most populous in the Marmara Region, is an industrial center. For example, Bursa is home to most of Turkey’s automobile manufacturing. Bursa will have a population of 1,986,000 people in 2020.

Bursa History

Bursa was the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire after its capture in 1326.  Urban development increased substantially because of the 13th-century tragedy. The Ottoman conquest of Adrianople (Edirne) in 1363 made it the capital city of the empire’s East Thrace region, although Bursa maintained its significance as a spiritual and economic center. From 1390 to 1395, Ottoman sultan Bayezid I constructed the Bayezid Kulliyesi (Bayezid I theological complex) in Bursa, and in the years 1396 to 1400, he erected the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque). After his loss at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, the city was pillaged and destroyed by Timur’s grandson, Muhammad Sultan Mirza. Although this was the case, Bursa remained the empire’s most important administrative and economic center until Mehmed II took Constantinople in 1453. In 1487, the Bursa population was 45,000.

Bursa was the primary supplier of royal silk goods throughout the Ottoman era. The city was also the only supplier of silk goods for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century and did this by obtaining raw silk from Iran and sometimes China. As a result, Armenian merchants, the vast majority stationed in the region’s thriving trading center, had great financial success. However, this heritage of cultural diversity in Bursa was almost eliminated during only two decades, with the tragedies of the Hamidian Massacres, the Armenian Genocide, and the population exchange taking place between 1895 and 1925. Bursa became one of the country’s industrial centers in 1923, the year of establishing the Republic of Turkey. A population boom followed this, and Bursa rose to become the fourth-largest city in Turkey.

Bursa Economy

Bursa, Turkey’s most significant automobile manufacturing center, is home to Turkish automakers. For decades, the city has had manufacturing plants run by automobile manufacturers like Fiat, Renault, and Karsan and components suppliers like Bosch, Mako, Valeo, Johnson Controls, and Delphi. The clothing and food sectors are similarly vital. Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola, and others are present in the city’s industrial zones and food businesses, including fresh and canned food. Not only is Bursa a significant center for the automobile sector, but it also has a thriving dairy industry, along with the production of processed food and drinks.

In its many forms, Silk was Bursa’s main claim to fame during the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, when the Silk Road was at its height. Bursa, Turkey’s textile, and trade center is also the city’s most significant manufacturing hub for textiles. The city of Bursa is also renowned for its rich soil and agriculture. Still, the amount of farmland in the area has been reduced in recent years because of extensive industrialization. Bursa is a popular tourist destination. One of Turkey’s best-known ski resorts is situated in the city’s shadow, at Mount Uludağ. Roman times are said to have seen therapeutic bathing in Bursa’s hot baths. In addition to the hotel-run spas, the Uludağ University campus includes a rehabilitation clinic that uses thermal water.

7. Denizli – Denizli Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Denizli is an industrial city in southwestern Turkey. It is located at the eastern end of the alluvial valley produced by the river Buyuk Menderes, where the plain reaches a height of around 350 meters (1,148 ft). Denizli is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey. The population of Denizli in 2020 is 644,782.

Denizli History

Denizli was an essential Greek town named Attouda that existed throughout the Greek and Roman periods. It was in the cities (Hierapolis and Laodicea on the Lycus) and thrived during the Byzantine period. The Turks seized the city. During the Seljuk dynasty, the people of Laodicea were also relocated here. Ibn Battuta visited the city, observing that “it boasts magnificent gardens, perennial streams, and flowing springs, and it has seven mosques for the practice of Friday prayers.” Most of the artists there are Greek women, as many Greeks are subject to the Muslims and pay dues to the Sultan, including jizyah and other taxes.”

The Turkish explorer Evliya Celebi visited Denizli in the 17th century and wrote about it: “The city is named by Turks as (Denizli) (which means numerous water sources like the sea in Turkish) as there are various rivers and lakes around it.” It is a four-day journey from the shore. Its fortification is built in a square form on level terrain. There are no ditches. It has a 470-step perimeter. It has four entrances. Painter’s gate is in the north, saddle makers gate is in the East, new Mosque gate is in the south, and vineyard gate is in the west. In the fortress, about fifty armed watchmen patrol the principal central city, with 44 districts and 3600 dwellings, outside the castle. Seventeen dervish lodges, six baths, seven madrasahs, and seven children’s schools, as well as 57 mosques and district masjids, are available. Because everyone lives in vineyards, the high and lower classes do not avoid one other.

Denizli Economy

Denizli is one of Turkey’s wealthiest areas in terms of visible marble and travertine deposits. Denizli has a capacity of 600.000 m3 for marble manufacturing. Denizli exported 315 million dollars in marble goods in 2014. Because of its favorable climate and terrain, it is ideal for viticulture and grape cultivation. It is also well-known in a variety of other sectors, including:

  • Industry of Copper Wire and Cable
  • Weaving, Textiles, and Garments
  • Leather Preparation
  • Greenhouse and organic agriculture
  • Industry of Travertine and Marble
  • Viticulture and Winemaking
  • Tourism for Religious and Cultural Reasons
  • Thermal and Wellness Tourism

8. Diyarbakir – Diyarbakir Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Diyarbakir, sometimes spelled Diyarbekir, is a city in southeastern Turkey that was previously known as Amida. It is located on the Tigris River’s right bank. The name derives from the Arabic term for “district (diyar) of the Bakr people,” an Arab clan that captured the city in the 7th century CE. The current form of -bakir (Turkish for “copper”) is believed to allude to the abundance of copper in the area. It has a population of 1.783 million people in 2020.

Diyarbakir History

Humans have lived in the region around Diyarbakir since the Stone Age. The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni was the first significant civilization to establish itself in the Diyarbakir area. It was dominated by almost every nation that ruled Upper Mesopotamia, including the Arameans, Assyrians, Urartu, Armenians, Achaemenid Persians, Medes, Seleucids, and Parthians. The city was renamed “Amida” after the Roman Republic took possession of it in 66 BC. Shapur II of Persia conquered Amida following a 73-day siege in 359. As Amida, Diyarbakir was the largest city of the Roman province of Mesopotamia, according to Hierocles’ Synecdemus. It was the episcopal see of Mesopotamia’s Christian diocese.

According to ancient sources, Amida had an amphitheater, thermae (public baths), warehouses, a tetra pylon monument, and Roman aqueducts that supplied and distributed water. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, who was an officer in the late Roman army, recorded the successful siege of Amida by the Sasanian Empire under Shapur II (r. 309–379). Refugees later augmented Amida from ancient Nisibis (Nusaybin). The emperor Jovian (r. 363–364) was forced to leave and lose to Shapur’s Persians following the defeat of his predecessor Julian’s Persian War, becoming the region’s primary Roman bastion. The chronicle attributed to Joshua, the Stylite, chronicles the conquest of Amida by the Persians under Kavad I (r. 488–531) at the Second Siege of Amida during the Anastasian War in 502–503. The walls of Amida were constructed by either the emperor Anastasius Dicorus (r. 491–518) or the emperor Justinian the Great (r. 527–565), a marvel of defensive construction commended by the Greek historian Procopius. According to John of Ephesus, Zacharias Rhetor, and Procopius, the Romans and Persians continued to contend for the area. During the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Amida was conquered and held by the Persians for twenty-six years until being reclaimed by the Romans in 628 (r. 610–641) by emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641); on his return to Constantinople (Istanbul) from Asia, the following year, he also established a church in the city. Part of this was due to urbanization, but it was also due to an upsurge in violence by the PKK, which caused many to abandon the rural for the city’s relative safety.

Diyarbakir Economy

Diyarbakir has historically produced wheat and sesame. They would store the grain in warehouses covered with straw and licorice tree branches. The grain may be stored in this method for up to 10 years. Diyarbakir exported raisins, almonds, and apricots to Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In addition, Diyarbakir produced Angora goats and exported wool and mohair. Merchants from Egypt, Istanbul, and Syria would often come to buy goats and lambs. Honey was also produced, although it was mostly consumed locally rather than exported. Sericulture has also been seen in the region.

Diyarbakir had a thriving copper industry before World War I, with six mines. Three were operational, two of which were owned by locals and the third by the Turkish government. The most common kind of copper mined was tenorite. Kurds dug it out by hand. A significant amount of the ore was shipped to England. Iron, gypsum, coal, chalk, lime, jet, and quartz were also produced, although mainly for local use. Diyarbakir Airport and Diyarbakir Railway Station serve the city. The railway connecting Elazig and Diyarbakr was inaugurated in 1935.

9. Erzurum – Erzurum Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Erzurum is a city in the Turkish province in eastern Anatolia. It is the biggest city in Erzurum Province and its capital. It is located at the height of 1,900 meters above sea level. In (), Erzurum’s population was 431,000. (2020).

Erzurum History

Early history

Diauehi was likely in charge of Erzurum’s environs during the Urartian era. Later, Erzurum was known as Karin in Armenian. Karin functioned as the capital of the namesake canton of Karin, in the province of Bardzr Hayk’, during the Artaxiad and Arsacid monarchs of Armenia (Upper Armenia). The city fell into the hands of the Romans after Armenia was partitioned between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 ADtowne cities was fortified and called Theodosiopolis after Emperor Theodosius I.  As the empire’s main military bastion along the empire’s eastern frontier, Theodosiopolis maintained a vital strategic position and was hotly fought in Byzantine-Persian wars. During their reigns, Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and erected additional defenses.

Middle Ages

The Seljuk Period the Cite Minareli Medrese (Twin Minaret Madrasa) is the city’s emblem and features on its coat of arms. In 700/701, the Umayyad commander Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik captured Theodosiopolis. It became the seat of the Kalikala emirate and a springboard for assaults into Byzantine territory. Despite being a Christian Armenian-populated island under Arab rule, the local populace was usually a loyal client of the Caliph’s administrators. As the Caliphate’s influence waned and Byzantium’s revival started, local Armenian elites preferred that the city be ruled by impotent Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors. Theophilos Kourkouas, the grandfather of John I Tzimiskes, led the Byzantine army against Theodosiopolis in 931 and again in 949. The city’s Arab inhabitants were evicted, and Greeks and Armenians moved there. In 1018, Emperor Basil II restored the city and its defenses with the assistance of the local Armenian community. After the crucial battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks seized control of Theodosiopolis. From 1071 through 1202, the Saltukids governed an Anatolian beylik (principality) based at Erzurum. Between 1191 and 1200, Melike Mama Hatun, Nâsrüddin Muhammed’s sister, was the ruler.

Until 1201 when the Seljuk Sultan Süleymanshah II captured the city and province, Theodosiopolis resisted several invasions and military operations by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter referred to the city as Karnu-Kalaki). In 1242, Erzen-Erzurum fell victim to a Mongol assault, and the city was plundered and destroyed. After the collapse of the Sultanate of Rum in the early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate. Subsequently, during the 1310s, the city was occupied by the Empire of Trebizond. Then it became a part of the oban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, Timur Lenk’s empire, and White Sheep Turkmen. Safavid Persia then ruled it until it was captured by the Ottomans under Selim I in 1514 in the Battle of Chaldiran. During Ottoman imperial control, the city functioned as the region’s central military station.

It was the capital of the Erzurum eyalet. In the early seventeenth century, the Safavid Persian Empire threatened the region, while the provincial governor, Abaza Mehmed Pasha, fomented revolt. In 1628, the Jelali Revolts (an uprising of regional musketeers) were fully connected with this rebellion. Iran was known to assist it. During the Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), Iranian monarch Nader Shah captured Erzurum in 1733, but the city was restored to Ottoman control after his death in 1747.

Modern history

During the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the Ottomans were severely beaten at Erzurum by the Iranian Qajars in 1821. (1821). The Russian Empire conquered the city in 1829 but was restored to the Ottoman Empire in September of that year by the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne). During the Crimean War, Russian soldiers neared Erzurum but did not attack it due to inadequate forces and the Russian siege of Kars, which was still in effect. During the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877–78, a Russian force attempted but failed to assault Erzurum (Battle of Erzurum (1877)). However, the Russians seized Erzurum without opposition in February 1878, but it was restored to the Ottoman Empire again under the Treaty of San Stefano. During the Hamidian massacres (1894–1896), the city’s Armenian residents were massacred.

The First World War and the Turkish War of Independence – Yakutiye Medrese is in the middle.

On the eve of World War I, Sanasarian College was one of Erzurum’s finest Armenian educational institutes. During the 1915 genocide, its faculty was assassinated. During the 1915 Armenian genocide, the city’s 40,000-strong Armenian population was expelled and massacred en masse. Like churches, clubs, and schools, their cultural institutions were looted, burned, or left in ruins. There were just around 200 Armenians still alive when Russian soldiers captured Erzurum in 1916.

The city was also the site of one of the pivotal engagements of World War I’s Caucasus Campaign between the Ottoman and Russian Empires. On February 16, 1916, Russian soldiers under the leadership of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich captured Erzurum. After that, Erzurum returned to Ottoman rule. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the father of the modern Turkish Republic, left the Ottoman army at Erzurum in 1919 and was given honorary status and citizenship in the city. The 1919 Erzurum Congress was one of the catalysts for the Turkish War of Independence.

Erzurum Economy

Ataturk University has been a significant source of wealth and economic activity in the city. It was founded in 1950 and is now one of Turkey’s foremost universities, with about 45,000 students. Tourism also contributes to the province’s economy. The city is a renowned winter sports destination in Turkey, thanks to the neighboring Palandöken Mountain. Erzurum is well-known for its small-scale manufacture of products made of Oltu stone, the majority of which are marketed as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings, and hair clips. For the time being, Erzurum is the terminus of the South Caucasus Pipeline, also known as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (BTE) pipeline.

Erzurum will also serve as the beginning point for the proposed Nabucco pipeline, transporting natural gas from the Caspian Sea region to European Union member states. Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Austria signed an intergovernmental agreement to develop the Nabucco pipeline on July 13, 2009, in Ankara. The European Union was represented by Jose Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, and Andris Piebalgs, Commissioner for Energy. In contrast, the United States was represented by Richard Morningstar, Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy, and Senator Richard Lugar, Ranking Member of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

10. Eskisehir – Eskisehir Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Eskisehir is the capital of the Eskisehir Province in northern Turkey. It was known as Dorylaeum during the Byzantine era, and the population in (2020) is 783,669.

Eskisehir History

Eskisehir translates to “Old City” in Turkish. The Phrygians established the city at least 1000 BC. However, it is thought to be older than 4000 years. The present city is roughly a mile from Dorylaeum, a Phrygian ancient town. The city’s archaeological museum still has many Phrygian antiquities and sculptures. There is also a museum dedicated to meerschaum stone, which is still used to produce high-quality meerschaum pipes. The city relocated about ten kilometers northeast, from Karacahisar to Sehirhoyuk, in the fourth century AD. Many ancient geographers regarded the city as one of Anatolia’s most beautiful.

Christianity came in numerous Anatolian cities when Constantine the Great authorized the religion in the Roman Empire. There are records of bishops holding office in Eskisehir dating back to the 4th century. In Greek, the city was known as Dorylaeum during the time. Eusebius, one of these bishops, was significantly involved in establishing the church’s growing dogma. During the Seljuk era, it was known as Sultanönü. It was the scene of a battle in 1097 in which the First Crusade defeated Kilij Arslan I; the town was later taken over by Turks in 1176, or the 13th century.

Eskisehir Economy

The following items are produced in Eskisehir: rail locomotives, passenger and commercial vehicles, fighter jet engines, agricultural machinery, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, meerschaum, and refined sugar. Eti [tr], one of Turkey’s major food companies (primarily producing biscuit, chocolate, and candy types), is headquartered in Eskisehir. Arcelik, a prominent Turkish producer of home appliances and consumer electronics, operates a manufacturing unit in Eskisehir. Eskisehir was the first stage of Turkey’s high-speed rail line from Ankara. Because of the shorter trip time, this service increased travel and trade between Eskisehir and Ankara. GKN, a prominent global automotive provider of powertrain systems for passenger and commercial vehicles, operates a factory in Eskisehir.

11. Gaziantep – Gaziantep Buyuksehir Belediyesi

In the westernmost section of Turkey’s Southeastern Anatolia Region, Gaziantep is the capital of Gaziantep Province, near Aleppo, Syria. It is most likely located near ancient Zeugma and on the site of ancient Antiochia and Taurum. The city is divided into three urban districts: Oguzeli, Sahinbey, and Sehitkamil. It is Turkey’s sixth-most populated city. In (2020), the population is 1,704,000 people.

Gaziantep History

Period of Neolithic, The Tell Tuluk archaeological site, which gave rise to the Neolithic Dulicien civilization, is located a few kilometers north of the city center. There are signs of habitation dating back to the 4th millennium BC in the early Bronze Age.

Hellenistic Period, it is believed that the Hellenistic city of Antiochia and Taurum was in Gaziantep.

Byzantine era, the sixth century Byzantines reconstructed the Gaziantep Fortress and the Ravanda Citadel, both in the city center.

Armenian era, although it was only under the sovereignty of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1155–1157 and 1204–1206, Gaziantep was home to a sizable Armenian community for the majority of the last two millennia. Armenians were vital to the city’s history, culture, welfare, and economy. Because of the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and the Armenian genocide in 1915, these communities no longer exist. Gaziantep was an important commercial route inside the Ottoman Empire. Armenians were involved in industry, agriculture, and, most importantly, trade and were the city’s wealthiest ethnic group [citation needed] until their wealth was seized during the Armenian genocide.

Ottoman period, Under Sultan Selim I’s rule, the Ottoman Empire conquered Gaziantep following Marj Dabiq in 1516.  Aintab was a sanjak in the Ottoman era, based first in the Dulkadir Eyalet (1516–1818) and subsequently in the Aleppo vilayet (1908–1918). In the Aleppo vilayet (1818–1908), it was also a Kaza. Because of its position spanning trade routes, the city developed itself as a commercial center.

Evliya Celebi, a 17th-century Turkish traveler, reported 3,900 stores and two bedesten. Two-thirds of the residents of Aintab, Turkey, towards the end of the nineteenth century were Muslim, and most of them were Turkish but also Arabic. There was a sizable Armenian group among the Christians. There was a lot of American Protestant Christian missionary activity in Aintab in the nineteenth century. Central Turkey College was created in 1874 by the American Mission Board and primarily served the Armenian community. During the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and the Armenian genocide in 1915, Armenians were murdered systematically. As a result, in 1916, the Central Turkey College was relocated to Aleppo.

Turkish Period, Gaziantep was captured by the United Kingdom after the First World War and the Armistice of Mudros on 17 December 1918, and it was handed to France on 5 November 1919. The French Armenian Legion also took part in the occupation. The city was besieged by irregular Turkish soldiers known as Kuva-Yi Milliye in April 1920, but the French won the 10-month war. Approximately 6,000 Turkish citizens were killed in the process. The Treaty of Ankara was signed on December 25, 1921, and therefore, the French left the city.

During the Siege of Aintab, when Armenians who escaped the Genocide were promised their houses back in their original countries, the French made the final effort to restore the city’s Armenian population. However, the Treaty of Ankara was signed on December 25, 1921, and therefore, the French left the city.

Gaziantep Economy

Gaziantep is Turkey’s most significant organized industrial region and ranks top in exports and imports. In addition, the city is the epicenter of the Nizip Soap business, which is based on green olive oil. The Zincirli Bedesten, Hüseyin Pasha Bedesten, and Kemikli Bedesten were the most well-known covered marketplaces in Gaziantep.

Gaziantep’s tourism sector is also growing. The development around the castle’s foundation enhances the attractiveness and accessibility of the court and the neighboring copper workshops. New eateries and tourist-friendly enterprises are opening in the neighborhood. Tourists are still a novelty in Gaziantep compared to other areas of Turkey, and the people make them feel extremely welcome. Many students learning English want to work as tour guides for visitors. Gaziantep is one of the world’s top manufacturers of machined carpets. In 2006, it exported about US$700 million in machine-made carpets. In the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone, there are around 100 carpet facilities.

Gaziantep is one of Turkey’s most important agricultural and industrial centers, with vast olive groves, vineyards, and pistachio orchards. Gaziantep is Turkey’s pistachio growing hub, generating 60,000 metric tons (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) in 2007. It is named from the Turkish term for pistachio, Antep fistigi, which means “Antep nut.” Sanko Park, the city’s, and region’s biggest enclosed retail complex, opened in 2009 and started attracting many customers from Syria. However, Turkey-Syria relations have deteriorated significantly since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011.

12. Hatay – Hatay Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Hatay Province in Turkey’s southernmost province is nearly completely located outside of Anatolia, along the eastern shore of the Levantine Sea. The province is bounded to the south and east by Syria and the north by the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye. It is a portion of Cukurova, a vast fertile plain in the cultural area of Cilicia, with Antakya as its administrative seat. the population in (2019) is 1,628,894.

Hatay History

Hatay was first settled about 3000 B.C. and was afterward ruled by the Akkadian Empire, then the Amorite Kingdom of Yamhad. Later, it became a part of the Kingdom of Mitanni, and the region was governed by a series of Hittites and Neo-Hittites, who gave the current province of Hatay its name.

Palistin, a Neo-Hittite kingdom, was also situated nearby. Except for a short incursion by Urartu, the region was ruled by the Assyrians and subsequently by the Neo-Babylonians and the Persians. The Hellenistic Seleucid empire was centered in the area, which was home to the four Greek towns of the Syrian tetrapolis (Antioch, Seleucia Pieria, Apamea, and Laodicea). Antioch became an important regional hub of the Roman Empire beginning in 64 BC.

Hatay Economy

Hatay is an important logistical center as well as a Silk Road commercial gateway to the Mediterranean Sea. Its economy is based chiefly on commerce, transportation, and agriculture. For many years, the goal was to transform it into a complete logistics base by building the Hassa- Dortyol Amanos mountain tunnel and creating nine thousand hectares of Hassa Organized Industry projects to support the logistic center. The region’s iron and steel sector has also grown in the past 30 years. Iskenderun Iron and Steel Factory’s manufacture of flat plates increased the importance of this industry in the area. Hatay is quickly expanding in the areas of cultural tourism, religious tourism, and culinary tourism. There are substantial movements in the service sector and a beneficial contribution to the socioeconomic structure because of the cultural and tourist infrastructure. The city’s significance grows because of its product diversity, early harvesting, multi-crop farming, and Skenderun’s port. Hatay’s agricultural regions, soil structure, and climate are ideal for growing a broad range of high-quality goods. Almost all types of fruits and vegetables and farming goods may be developed in the city’s 42.395 agricultural businesses, along with animal husbandry.

According to the 2000 census, agriculture employed 61.62 percent of the working population (518.808), services used 30.2 percent, and manufacturing employed 8.15 percent. The wholesale and retail trade employs a significant proportion of the workforce in the services industry (22.17 percent). Agriculture between 1940 and 1970, industry between 1970 and 2000, and the services sector between 2000 and 2010 were booming in Hatay, where population development was studied in three decades. Alalakh, Tell Tayinat, Tell Judaidah, and Antioch is among the province’s well-known archaeological monuments.

13. Istanbul – Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Istanbul is Turkey’s most significant metropolis and the country’s economic, cultural, and historic center. The city spans the Bosporus strait and is in Europe and Asia, with over 15 million people, accounting for 19% of Turkey’s total population.  Istanbul is Europe’s most populated metropolis and the world’s fifteenth-largest city. the people in (2020) is 15.46 million.

Istanbul History

They were the city’s first occupants, dating back to the second millennium BC and settling on the Asian side of the city. Megara king Byzas dispatched immigrants to establish a colony named Byzantium, which is Greek, meaning a city on the Bosphorus, in the 7th century BC. According to an oracle of Delphi, Byzas was instructed to dwell on the other side of “the country of the blind,” therefore, he selected this location. Indeed, Byzas thought that previous inhabitants must have been “blind” to have overlooked this magnificent position at the mouth of the Bosphorus strait, the only route to the Black Sea. The city was under Persian control in the 6th century BC. It was later captured by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, following which it remained quiet until the 2nd century BC.

The city was taken over by the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus in 193 AD. It remained under Roman authority until the 4th century when Emperor Constantine the Great renamed it Constantinople and declared it the capital of the whole Roman Empire.  That was the beginning of the Eastern Roman Empire, which came to be known as the Byzantine Empire after the 5th century.  Like Rome, the city was constructed on seven hills. Early Byzantine rulers enriched their city with old global treasures, particularly during the 4th and 6th centuries, when it had over 500,000 people. Riots devastated the city in 532, under the reign of Justinian I. However, it was restored, and remarkable buildings such as Hagia Sophia remain memorials to the Byzantine golden era. Istanbul’s later history is rife with intrigues and sieges; it was besieged by the Arabs in the 7th and 8th centuries and by the Barbarians in the 9th and 10th centuries but controlled by the Fourth Crusade between 1204 and 1261, which destroyed and plundered all the riches. Constantinople never recovered its previous wealth or power after this.

In 1453, Ottoman Turks headed by Sultan Mehmet II seized Constantinople. The city was renamed Islambol and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Sultans constructed numerous mosques and public structures during the 15th and 16th centuries, bringing the population up to approximately half a million by the mid-1500s. Istanbul was an important cultural, political, and economic center by the mid-1500s. The name “Istanbul” is a Turkish-Greek hybrid that translates to “Islambol + Eis tin Polin” (“to the city” in Greek). Ottoman authority continued until World War I when Allied forces captured the city of Istanbul. The Turkish Republic was established in 1923, after decades of conflict led by Ataturk against the occupying troops, with the new country’s capital relocating to Ankara province. However, Istanbul’s population has continued to grow significantly; it now has over 13 million people and increases. It is still Turkey’s economic and cultural hub.

Istanbul Economy

Turkey’s economy is classified as an emerging market economy by the International Monetary Fund. In addition, economists and political scientists classify Turkey as one of the world’s newly industrialized nations. Turkey has the world’s 20th-largest nominal GDP and 11th-largest PPP GDP, with a population of 83.4 million as of 2021. The nation is a global leader in agricultural goods, textiles, motor cars, transportation equipment, building materials, consumer electronics, and home appliances (see the related chapters below).

Significant changes have occurred in Turkey’s economy’s economic and social elements during the last 20 years. Employment and income have increased since 2000.

  • Industrial sectors
  • Consumer electronics and home appliances
  • Textiles and clothing
  • Motor vehicles and automotive products
  • Multiple unit trains, locomotives, and wagons
  • Defense industry
  • Steel-iron industry
  • Science and technology

Here is more information about Istanbul city, https://www.realtygroup.com.tr/things-to-know-about-istanbul

14. Izmir – Izmir Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Izmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia. After Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey’s third most populated city and the second biggest urban agglomeration on the Aegean Sea after Athens.

Izmir History

Bronze Age (3000 BC – 1050 BC), although the first civilizations in İzmir were established before 3000 BC, the latest excavations have found artifacts dating to only 3000 BC. According to the findings of these excavations, the earliest inhabitants of Izmir built their houses on the highest level of the mound, on rocks 3 to 5 meters above sea level.  This first settlement belongs to Bronze Age. Pottery from various eras parallels Troy’s cultures and art (3000-2500 BC). The Middle Bronze Age occurred over the first habitation layer. The stoneware artifacts discovered here are almost like those in Troy II (2500 BC – 2000 BC). The third habitation stratum is from Troy VI and the Hittite era (1800 BC – 1050 BC).

The third habitation stratum is from Troy VI and the Hittite era (1800 BC – 1050 BC). An extensive and substantial vase discovered in this stratum is of the same kind as potteries discovered at the Beyce Sultan excavations, which are situated to the south of Afyon and Uşak. Similarly, several ceramics feature forms that are comparable to those seen in Middle Anatolia and Troy VI. Aside from these, the “Minyas” vases discovered in Troy VI have also been found at Bayrakl, as have 4-5 Myken pottery. Because the excavation holes are tiny, there isn’t much information on the structure of the homes. The language of the local people of Izmir during the Bronze Age is likewise unknown. The discovery of “Minyas” type stoneware may be interpreted as evidence that, like many Anatolian towns, an Achaian trading colony existed here about 2000 BC.

Iron Age, the writing was used in Anatolia during the Hittites Period (1800 BC – 1200 BC), and therefore historical ages were reached. However, with the destruction of Troy VII and the Hittite capital Hattusa by Balkan tribes about 1200 BC, Central and Western Anatolia entered a new dark period, the Iron Age. The Iron Age lasted in Anatolia until writing in Phrygia in 730 BC and Western Anatolia about 650 BC.

Golden Era (650 BC – 545 BC), the golden Period of Ancient Izmir lasted from 650 BC until 545 BC. This era, which lasted almost a hundred years, was the most prosperous in the history of the Ionian civilization. Eastern Hellenic world had started to compete with continental Greece and take over its dominance in several areas. During this time, we can see that Izmir did not limit itself to farming but also became a part of Mediterranean commerce. Objects of Phoenician provenance, sculptures, and figurines of Cyprus origin, tile figurines of Asia Minor or Mediterranean origin discovered in the strata of this era are examples of artifacts from that international commerce.

Writing becomes increasingly common after 650 BC, which is one of the critical indicators of the Golden Era in Izmir. Presentation notes are included in many gifts given to the goddess Athena. Although not numerous, some city dwellers were literate. The Temple of Athena (640 BC – 580 BC), discovered during the excavations, is the earliest architectural achievement in the Eastern Hellenic civilization. Until now, the oldest and most magnificent column capitals have been found in Izmir. Evidence from the ancient cities of Samos, Miletos, Ephesos, Erythrai, and Phokaia in the late sixth century BC (575 BC to 550 BC) suggests that Samos was an important port in the Aegean Sea. Lesbos’s cymatium and Aeolian and Ionian capitals, which are, in turn, indebted to the two kinds of means described above, which were discovered in Izmir and were primarily influenced by Anatolian Hittite art.

ANCIENT IZMIR’S CAPTURE BY LYDIAN KING ALYATTES AND PERSIANS , alyattes conquered Lydia’s ancient city, according to Herodotos. Excavation results suggest that this occurrence occurred about 500 BC. Even though the city and the Temple of Athena were destroyed, the inhabitants of Izmir reconstructed the temple of about 590 BC. With this occurrence, the city, which the Persians subsequently conquered in the mid-6th century, concluded its golden era. The fact no gifts were given to the temple of Athena beyond this Period is an indication of the extent of the devastation.

Myrna (old name for Izmir), which has one of the “Seven Churches” described in the Bible, was crucial in the growth of Christianity. St. Polycarp, the first archbishop of Izmir, was one of the apostle and Bible writer St. John’s earliest followers. Around the year 70 AD, he was born in Anatolia. St. Polycarp was sentenced to death by Romans at the stadium of Acropolis of Izmir on February 23, 155, because of his religious beliefs. When the Roman Empire was split into 395 ADS, Izmir became a province of the Eastern Roman Empire, known as the Byzantine Empire. During the Byzantine era, the Arabs, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Genoese battled to control the city. For starters, in 672, the Arabs seized the city from the sea and utilized it as a springboard for their assault on Istanbul. Under the leadership of Kutalmisoglu Suleyman Shah, the Turks conquered Izmir for the first time towards the end of the 11th century. The city was after that controlled by the Genoese until Aydin Emir Umur Bey seized possession. The Genoese retook St. Peter Castle in 1344. Umur Bey ruled over the upper city, while the Genoese ruled the lower city. The Knights of Rhodes seized the castle and the lower city in the middle of the 14th century.

Ottoman Sultan II. Murat conquered the city in 1422, and Izmir became part of the Ottoman Empire. Izmir became one of the Ottoman Empire’s most significant commercial hubs when the Ottoman Empire granted certain rights and advantages to foreigners. The city was a popular destination for French, British, Dutch, and Italian traders in the 18th and 19th centuries. After the First World War, the Greek army seized Izmir, a cosmopolitan trading center in the Ottoman Empire, on May 15, 1919. The invasion came to an end on September 9, 1922. However, on September 13, Izmir could not prevent one of the greatest catastrophes in its history. A large fire that started in the Basmane neighborhood damaged about 20,000 houses and businesses across a 2,600,000 square meter area. This fire destroyed three-quarters of the city. Izmir, like the newly formed Turkish Republic, is resurrected from its ashes like a phoenix.

Here is more information about Izmir city, http://realtygroup.com.tr/things-to-know-about-izmir

15. Kahramanmaras – Kahramanmaras Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Situated in Turkey’s Mediterranean area, the administrative capital of Kahramanmaras Province is Germanicea, also known as Kahramanmaras. 

Kahramanmaras History

Kahramanmaras was called Germanicia, in time the Roman and Byzantine empires; during the Roman and Byzantine empires, Kahramanmaras was known as Germanicia, most likely after Germanicus Julius Caesar rather than the German people. According to Cumhuriyet’s report from 2010, the earliest remains of Germanicia have already been discovered in the city’s Dulkadiroğulları neighborhoods.

Germanicia was seized from the Byzantines in 645 by Muslim Arabs, who renamed the city Marash. Mor Dionysius Bar Salibi (died 1171) was the bishop of Marash, an important Syriac Orthodox diocese. Marash belonged to the fortified Arab-Byzantine border zone (Thughur) for the following three centuries and was used as a base for Arab raids into Byzantine-held Asia Minor. Several times during the Arab-Byzantine Wars, it was destroyed.

Modern Period

During Ottoman control, the city served as the administrative center of the Eyalet of Dulkadir and later as the administrative center of a sanjak in the Vilayet of Aleppo. After the First World War, British forces occupied Marash from 22 February 1919 to 30 October 1919, followed by French troops after the Armistice of Mudros.

After the Battle of Marash on 13 February 1920, it was seized by the Turkish National Movement. Following it, a massacre of Armenian people occurred. Roving Turkish gangs pelted kerosene-soaked rags at Armenian houses and rained down on the American rescue hospital. As in past times of turmoil, Armenians sought shelter in their churches and schools. Women and children were temporarily housed in Marash’s six Armenian Apostolic and three Armenian Evangelical churches, as well as the city’s only Catholic cathedral. Unfortunately, the churches, and ultimately the whole Armenian neighborhood, were set on fire. When the 2,000 Armenians who had sought refuge in the Catholic church tried to flee were shot. Early estimates placed the number of Armenians killed at 16,000 was subsequently reduced to 5,000–12,000.

Marash’s name was changed to Kahramanmaras in 1973 when the Turkish government added “Kahraman” to the name in tribute to the resistance against French occupation after World War I. In Turkish, Kahraman means “hero.” The Mara? Massacre of communist Alevis occurred in the city in December 1978. The Grey Wolves, a Turkish nationalist organization, instigated the violence that killed 800–1000 people. The episode influenced the Turkish government’s decision to establish martial rule and the military coup in 1980.

16. Kayseri – Kayseri Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Kayseri is a major industrialized city in Turkey’s Central Anatolia region. It is the administrative center of Kayseri Province. Kayseri is essentially divided into five metropolitan districts, as specified by the boundaries of the Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality: the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, plus, since 2004, Hacilar, Incesu, and Talas.  In (2020), the population is 973,506.

Kayseri History

Ancient history, the city was the home of Cappadocia’s rulers. During the nearly 200 years of Achaemenid Persian dominance, it was at the crossroads of trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and the Persian Royal Road, which stretched from Sardis to Susa. A comparable road from Ephesus to the East passed through the city during Roman times.

Hellenistic times, the Twelve Labors of Hercules Sarcophagus, Kayseri Archaeology Museum, Turkey, 150-160 A.D. From Perdikkas, one of Alexander’s old generals, the city became the capital of a transitory Satrapy under another one of Alexander’s senior generals, Eumenes of Cardia. Finally, after the battle of Ipsus, a Seleucid city became the capital of a Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in about 250 B.C.

Roman and Byzantine rule, the city was officially controlled by the Romans in 17 AD. However, the Sassanid monarch Shapur I destroyed Caesarea after defeating Emperor Valerian I in 260 AD. It was believed that about 40,000 people lived there at the time.

Islamic era, Umayyad Caliph) Muawiyah invaded Cappadocia and briefly seized Caesarea from the Byzantines. When Alp Arslan conquered the city in 1067, it was known as Kaisariyah by the Arabs and Kayseri by the Seljuk Turks. The latter’s troops destroyed the city and murdered its inhabitants. [18] Following the fall of the city, the shrine of Saint Basil was also sacked. Therefore, the city was abandoned for the next half-century.

Modern era, the modern epoch, The Grand Bazaar, was built in the late 1800s, although the neighboring caravanserai originates from about 1500.  in the 1970s, the town’s older districts (packed with magnificent mansion-houses) were subjected to widespread demolitions. The Grand National Assembly’s new home, the Kayseri Lyceum, was built in Ankara, which was the capital of the Turkish National Movement’s base. The city is now well-known for its carpet merchants.

Kayseri Economy

In the 1920s and 1930s, Kayseri got significant governmental investments. After the Republican Era, Sumer Textile and Kayseri Tayyare Fabrikasi (airplane factory) were built here with the help of German and Russian expertise.  In the 1940s, the latter produced the first airplane labeled “made in Turkey.” The city suffered from a decline in public investment after the 1950s. However, it was during the same years that Kayseri tradesmen and merchants evolved into national capitalists. The city’s development rate was so rapid that it applied to the Guinness Book of World Records in 2004 for the newest manufacturing industries established in a single day: 139 factories. Kayseri has also developed as one of Turkey’s most successful furniture-making centers, with over a billion dollars in export earnings in 2007.

17. Kocaeli – Kocaeli Buyuksehir Belediyesi

As one of only three Turkish provinces with no capital-to-province name match, Kocaeli Province is in Turkey and is also known as Kocaeli. The region succeeded the Ottoman-era Sanjak of Kocaeli. The province’s two biggest cities are Izmit and Gebze. Kocaeli is bounded by Istanbul province and the Marmara Sea on the west, the Black Sea on the north, Sakarya province on the east, Bursa province on the south, and Yalova province on the southwest.  In (2019), the population is 1,953,035.

Kocaeli History

Kocaeli was formerly part of the kingdom of Bithynia (3rd century BCE), and in 183 BCE, the Carthaginian commander Hannibal was buried there (near modern Gebze). The Ottoman Turks conquered the region from the Byzantine Empire in the 14th century. Izmit is the province’s primary outlet for agricultural (mainly sugar beets and tobacco), forest, and industrial (primarily cement, paper goods, textiles, and petroleum) products.  Its area is 1,400 square miles (3,626 square km).

Kocaeli Economy

Industrial businesses are concentrated in the districts of Gebze, Izmit, and Körfez. Istanbul is home to 26% of Turkey’s top 100 industrial companies, manufacture numerous goods.  There were countless manufacturing branches in Kocaeli, but the chemical sector was the most important, accounting for 28% of all output. Metal ware, automobile, stone, and soil-based industries all grew in importance in Kocaeli.

Kocaeli is home to not only local but also economically significant foreign-owned industrial companies. On the other hand, the Kocaeli industry consumes roughly 10% of all energy used in the nation.  Kocaeli has also ranked top in Turkey regarding yearly national income per capita during the past ten years. Kocaeli, an industrial city, is an area where the industrial sector accounts for about 70% of GDP.

18. Konya – Konya Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Konya is a large city in south-central Turkey, on the south-western border of the Central Anatolian Plateau. It is Turkey’s seventh-most populated city, with a metropolitan population of over 2.2 million people.

Konya History

Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC. The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. Later it was overtaken by the Sea Peoples in about 1200 BC.

Seljuk and Karamanid eras

The Seljuk Turks initially invaded the region in 1069. Still, following the Seljuk victory in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, Anatolia fell into turmoil, and the Norman mercenary commander Roussel de Bailleul rose in rebellion at Iconium. In 1084, the Seljuks ultimately captured the city. It served as the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum from 1097 until 1243. After the Battle of Iconium was temporarily held by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097) and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190), The Turks reclaimed the region.

Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic eras

During Ottoman control, Konya was governed by the Sultan’s sons (Sehzade), beginning with Sehzade Mustafa and Sehzade Cem (Sultan Mehmed II’s sons) and subsequently by the future Sultan Selim II. Konya served as the administrative seat of Karaman Eyalet from 1483 until 1864. During the Tanzimat era, Konya became the capital of the larger Vilayet of Konya, which succeeded Karaman Eyalet as part of the vilayet system established in 1864.

Greeks from Sille, a neighboring Konya village

During the Turkish War of Independence, Konya had a significant aviation base. The Air Force was renamed the Inspectorate of Air Forces in 1922, and it was based at Konya. In 1923, as part of the Greek-Turkish population exchange, the Greeks of Sille, a neighboring hamlet, fled as refugees and relocated to Greece.

Konya Economy

The city is one of the Anatolian Tigers. There are many industrial parks. Konya’s exports reached 130 countries in 2012. Konya is home to the headquarters of many Turkish industrial companies, including Kombassan Holding. While agriculture remains important, the city’s economy has evolved into a center for manufacturing automotive components, machinery, agricultural tools, casting industry, plastic paint and chemical industry, construction materials, paper and packing industry, processed foods, textiles, and leather industry.

19. Malatya – Malatya Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Malatya Province is a Turkish province. It is a component of a more considerable mountain range. It has an area of 12,313 km2 and has a population of 403,150 people (2020).

Malatya History

In the early twentieth century, the province was the regional epicenter of Kurdish nationalism. Celadet Bedir Khan, Kamuran Ali Bedirxan, and other members of the Society for the Rise of Kurdistan visited the area many times and developed good ties with the local tribes, notably the Reswan tribe.

Malatya Economy

Agriculture, textile industry, and construction dominate the city of Malatya’s economy. Apricot cultivation is essential for sustenance in the central region, as it is across the province. Malatya is the world’s largest producer of apricots. The city has two structured industrial zones, with textile being the primary sector.  Malatya was historically known for its opium production. In 1920, the British characterized Malatya opium as having “the greatest proportion of morphia.”

20. Manisa – Manisa Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Manisa, formerly Magnesia, is a major city in Turkey’s Aegean Region and the administrative center of Manisa Province. In (2020), the population will be 381,000 people.

Manisa History

Because the great Ottoman Sultans selected Manisa as a training ground for crown princes, there are numerous Ottoman and Seljuk architecture examples. The Sultan Mosque was constructed in the 16th century for Ayse Sultan, Suleyman the Magnificent’s mother. Every year, in her honor, the Mesir Macunu Festival (Spiced Candy that is believed to restore health, youth, and potency, also known as “Turkish Viagra”) is celebrated on the grounds of this mosque, around the end of March or April.

The remains of Philadelphia, another of the Seven Churches, may be seen in the Alasehir region. Except for the remains of a Byzantine cathedral, nothing remained of the old city. Kula’s traditional homes are stunning specimens of Ottoman architecture. Yunt Dagi, Gordes, Kula, and Demirci are well-known for their valuable carpets and kilims. In addition, there are many thermal springs located across the region.

Manisa Economy

Modern Manisa is a thriving industrial and service hub, aided by its proximity to the international port city and the regional metropolitan center of Izmir and its lush hinterland rich in quantity and diversity of agricultural output.

Manisa and many of its dependent district cities have solidified an industrial production base in recent decades, supported initially and continuously by century-old large-scale agricultural processing and related activities (production of flour and olive oil, basic textiles, leather goods, farming tools and instruments, cotton ginning). Food manufacturing (196 businesses), construction materials (114), metal products (85), textile and apparel industries (46), and cotton ginning are among the main leadings trial activity in Manisa (43). The industries with the most workers are electronics/electrical appliances, foodstuffs, and construction.

21. Mardin – Mardin Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Mardin is a city in Turkey’s southeastern region, located in Mardin Province; it is known for its old Artuqid architecture and is situated on a steep rocky slope close to the Tigris River. The city’s old town is under UNESCO protection, which prohibits new buildings from conserving its façade. The population in 2020 will be 854,716 people.

Mardin History

The city persisted into the Syriac Christian era under the name Mt. Izala (Izla), which stood the monastery of Nisibis in the early 4th century AD, holding seventy monks. Finally, the city was known as Marida (Merida) during the Roman era, derived from a Neo-Aramaic language word that meant “fortress.” In the 11th century, the Seljuks conquered Byzantine Izala. As a result, many of Mardin’s ancient structures, including mosques, palaces, madrassas, and khans, were built during the Artuqid Period.

The Ottoman Empire, A few years later, in 1515, the city fell to the Ottomans, the Safavid dynasty’s fiercest enemies, but the castle remained under Ismail’s authority. One year later, the Ottomans, led by Selim I, attacked the city again and finally conquered it in 1517.

With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Mardin was designated as the administrative seat of the province named after it. Many Assyrian survivors of the violence subsequently fled to neighboring Qamishli in the 1940s, when conscription into the Turkish military became mandatory. The first and fourteenth cavalry divisions were stationed at Mardin when the Turkish government crushed the Sheikh Said Rebellion in 1925.

Mardin Economy

Mardin has essential agricultural, industrial lines, and they are very excellent sesame producers. In addition, their economy has grown significantly during the past ten years.

22. Mersin – Mersin Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Mersin is a major city and port on Turkey’s southern Mediterranean coast, located in the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Region, an interurban agglomeration, Cukurova, a physical, economic, and cultural area, is part of the western edge. Mersin is an important economic center in Turkey, and it is home to the country’s biggest harbor. Mersin is the “Pearl of the Mediterranean” in Turkey, and it hosted the 2013 Mediterranean Games. Mersin is the provincial capital of Turkey’s Mersin Province. In (2020), the population is 1,016,000 people.

Mersin History

Since the 9th millennium BC, this shore has been populated. Excavations on Yumuktepe Hill by John Garstang have uncovered 23 layers of occupancy, the oldest dating from about 6300 BC. The city was a part of numerous kingdoms and civilizations, including the Hittites, Assyrians, Urartians, Persians, Greeks, Armenians, Seleucids, and Lagids. Cilicia was captured by the Arabs in the early 7th century when it seems to have been a desolate location—followed by the Tulunids in Egypt (965-1171), the Byzantines (9th to 12th centuries), the Kingdom of Cilicia, the Mamluks, beyliks in Anatolia, and the Ottomans (who conquered the city from the Ramadan Eid Principality in 1473 and formally annexed it in 1517).

Mersin is now a big metropolis that stretches down the coast, with skyscrapers, massive hotels, an opera house, costly real estate by the sea or in the hills, and many other contemporary urban facilities. Mersin’s seashore is the longest in both Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Mersin Economy

Mersin was formerly a significant producer of cottonseed oil. The agricultural region around Mersin is well-known for its citrus and cotton cultivation. Bananas, olives, and a variety of fruits are also grown.  Forum Mersin, the city’s largest retail mall, has over 100 stores. The Mersin Port is the city’s economic backbone. The port, presently managed by PSA International, serves as an international center for numerous boats traveling to European nations.  A port area of 194 acres is home to 45 piers, and the annual ship capacity is 6,000.

23. Mugla – Mugla Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Mugla is a city in Turkey’s southwest. Mugla is the administrative seat of the Mentese and Mugla Province, which extends along Turkey’s Aegean coast. Mugla’s core is located inland at 660 m, about 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the closest seacoast at the Gulf of Gokova to its southwest. In (2020), the population is estimated to be about one million people.

Mugla History

Mugla was a small town in ancient times: a midway point along the coast between the Carian city of Idrias (later Stratonicea) to the north and Idyma (today Akyaka) to the southwest.  There are practically no remains that indicate the history of Mobolla’s town. A few old ruins on a high hill to the north of the city suggest that it was the location of an acropolis. A few inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century BC were discovered inside the city.  Despite being conquered relatively early for western Anatolia in the 13th century, Turkish-era Mugla remained a small load remote in the beginning. Milas was the capital of the local governing dynasty of Mentese.  Mugla gained regional significance when the Ottoman Empire supplanted Milas as the subprovince (sanjak) capital in 1420. During the era of the Republic, the sanjak was called Mugla after its capital city, Mugla.

Mugla Economy

Its previous image as a mainly agricultural, difficult-to-access, remote, and underpopulated area surrounded by a steep mountainous complex is gradually fading. A significant restoration effort of the city’s architectural history has also boosted local tourism in recent years. Nevertheless, the city is still a well-organized, compact, and regional agricultural hub. The town maintains its ancient districts, not succumbing to the mid-twentieth-century boom in substantial rebuilding, but shows a progressive mentality, as shown by the city’s continued pride in having had Turkey’s first female provincial governor, Lale Aytaman, in the 1990s. Despite this, Mugla lacks significant industrial and processing facilities, and its economy is based on commerce, crafts, services, tourism, and agriculture. As a result, tourism in Mugla is a beautiful potential for local community employment, and its rich soil and favorable climate offer a range of goods for agricultural workers.

24. Ordu – Ordu Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Ordu or Altinordu is a port city on Turkey’s Black Sea coast, traditionally known as Cotyora or Kotyora, and the seat of Ordu Province, with a population of 761,400 in 2020.

Ordu History

The Miletians established Cotyora as a series of colonies along the Black Sea coast in the eighth century BC.  The Ottomans established Bayramli at Eskipazar as a military outpost 5 kilometers (3 miles) west of Ordu. The city was renamed Ordu in 1869, and it was merged with the districts of Bolaman, Persembe, Ulubey, Hansamana (Golkoy), and Aybast. The city was more than half Christian (Greek and Armenian) around the beginning of the twentieth century, and it was renowned for its Greek schools. Ordu province was formed in 1921 by the separation of Trebizond Vilayet.

Ordu Economy

Ordu is well-known for its hazelnut production, accounting for about 25% of the global harvest. The crop accounts for up to 80% of the province’s economic activity. Turkey produces about 75% of the world’s hazelnuts. In addition, Ordu was one of the few producers of white, green beans that were shipped to Europe in 1920. Ordu also has sericulture mulberry tree plantations. With its seven businesses, the city is now partly industrialized and a member of the Anatolian Tigers.

25. Sakarya – Sakarya Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Sakarya is in the Marmara Region. Its neighboring provinces are Kocaeli to the west, Bilecik to the south, Bolu to the southeast, and Duzce to the east. Sakarya’s population is expected to be 553,000 in 2021.

Sakarya History

Throughout history, Sakarya has been home to various civilizations, including the Hittites, Lydians, the Kingdom of Bithynia, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. It was a district when the Turkish Republic was established in 1923, and it became a province in 1954. Sakarya, which was designated a metropolitan city in 2000, has over one million people. Sakarya is situated in the Marmara Region to the East and has long drawn interest due to its logistical location and economic and social structure.

Sakarya Economy

In addition to its natural beauty, Sakarya is a beautiful model for Turkey in terms of ‘clean and green’ industrial uses. As a result, many Turkish and multinational conglomerates have relocated their operations to the city. Toyota, Otoyol, Otokar, Türk Traktör, and Trsan are among the automotive companies that have made significant investments in Sakarya.

Sakarya, a city, established by immigrants, has fantastic achievements with a solid industrial and laboring culture in terms of export to Europe. The idea of a ‘zero-defect policy in manufacturing’ has improved the export rate. As a result, the city has made a significant contribution to Turkey’s increased export rate. Sakarya is home to critical state-owned enterprises such as TUVASAS (which manufactures railway carriages) and the 1st Military Main Maintenance Centre. 

Sakarya is a city that influences industrial output. It maintains a tight grip on production via Organized Industrial Zones, preventing pollution. Five distinct Organized Industrial Zones in the city possess a large volume of marketing and employ 100.000 people. Furthermore, with the construction of new Organized Industrial Zones, those numbers are expected to rise.  Sakarya will soon export to the rest of the globe through the newly constructed Karasu Port. A new railway is being built to connect this OIZ with the Karasu Port. The logistics expenses will be substantially reduced if the railway is finished. Karasu aspires to be a major player in shipping to all Black Sea ports. With its massive amount output, Sakarya aspires to be one of the most productive port cities in the world.

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26. Samsun – Samsun Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Samsun is a city on Turkey’s north coast with a population of about 1.4 million people. It is a significant Black Seaport and the provincial capital of Samsun Province.

Samsun History

Samsun was a component of the Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum, the Trebizond Empire, and a Genoese colony. The Isfendiyarids governed the city when the Seljuk Empire was divided into minor kingdoms (beyliks) in the late 13th century. It was taken from the Isfendiyarids by the competing Ottoman beylik (later the Ottoman Empire) under Sultan Bayezid I towards the end of the 14th century but was lost soon after.

In the weeks after August 11, 1420, the Ottomans permanently seized the town. [29] It formed part of the Sanjak of Canik (Turkish: Canik Sanca) in the latter Ottoman era, originally part of the Rum Eyalet. Samsun, which had a population of over 5,000 Armenians at the time, was severely impacted by the Armenian genocide of 1915, and the last Armenian Zoroastrians – the Arewordik, or children of the sun – resided there. On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the Turkish national movement against the Allies in Samsun, generally regarded as the start of the Turkish War of Independence. The Allies attacked the city in early June 1922.

Samsun Economy

Samsun is a seaport. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey financed constructing a port in the early twentieth century. Before the port construction, ships had to anchor about one mile or more from shore to deliver cargo. Trade and transportation were centered on a route leading to and from Sivas.

Manufacturing and food processing

Between the city and the airport lies a minor industrial zone. Medical equipment and goods, furniture (wood is imported across the Black Sea), tobacco products (although the government currently restricts tobacco cultivation), chemicals, and automotive spare parts are the major produced items.

27. Sanliurfa – Sanlıurfa Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Urfa, formally known as Sanliurfa, is a city in southeastern Turkey with over 2 million people and the seat of Sanliurfa Province. Urfa’s population is made up of Turks, Kurds, and Arabs. Urfa is in a plain about 80 kilometers east of the Euphrates River.

Sanliurfa History

Islam initially arrived in Urfa about 638 ADS, when the area fell without resistance to the Rashidun army, and it quickly established a significant presence under the Ayyubids and Seljuks. The Crusader kingdom was defeated in 1144 by the Turkish Abassid commander Zengui, who murdered most of the Christian population and the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa), and the following Second Crusade failed to retake the city. Before being conquered by the Ottomans in 1516, Urfa was governed by the Zengids, Ayyubids, Sultanate of Rum, Ilkhanids, Mamluks, Akkoyunlu, and Safavids. Urfa was a location of the Armenian and Assyrian genocides during World War I, starting in August 1915. By the conflict’s conclusion, the entire Christian population had been slaughtered, fled, or went into hiding.

The British occupation of Urfa began de facto on 7 March 1919 and was formal de jure on 24 March 1919, lasting until 30 October 1919. The following day, French troops seized control and lasted until 11 April 1920, when they were beaten by local resistance forces before the Republic of Turkey was formally declared on 23 April 1920).

The French withdrawal from Urfa was carried out by an agreement between the occupying troops and representatives of the local forces, led by Captain Ali Saip Bey, who was sent from Ankara. The retreat was supposed to be quiet, but it was interrupted by an ambush on French troops on the route to Syria by irregular Kuva-Yi Milliye Sebeke Pass, resulting in 296 fatalities among the French.

Sanliurfa Economy

The economic structure of Sanlıurfa is mainly based on the agriculture sector. Therefore, the sectoral breakdown of regions GDP is agriculture (43%), services (40%), industry (11%), and construction (6%).

28. Tekirdag – Tekirdag Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Tekirdag is a Turkish city. It is part of the historically known East Thrace area, situated on the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. The city’s population was 204,001 in 2019.

Tekirdag History

The city was part of the Rumelia Eyalet, the Kapudan Pasha Province, the Silistra Eyalet, and the Edirne Vilayet throughout the Ottoman Period. It became the seat of the Sanjak of Tekfurtagi after 1849. In 1905, the city had approximately 35,000 people; half of them were Greeks who were swapped with Greek Muslims following the 1923 agreement for the exchange of Greek Orthodox and Muslim populations between the two nations.

Following their loss in the Battle of Lule Burgas in 1912, the retreating Turkish army set fire to various sections of town and murdered numerous Christians. Children were also thrown into the flames. Tekirdag was a storehouse for Edirne provincial products for many years, but its commerce declined when Alexandroupolis became the end of the railway up the Maritsa.Tekirdag Economy

Tekirdag is a Turkish commercial town center with an agricultural product port developed to accommodate a new rail connection to the major freight route across Thrace. In addition, Tekirda is the home port of Martas and the BOTAS Terminal, both of which are vital to commerce in the Marmara Region.

29. Trabzon – Trabzon Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Trabzon is a city in northeast Turkey on the Black Sea coast. In the 13th century, it was built as a church. In (2020), the population is 768,417 people.

Trabzon History

During the Komnenos Byzantine Kingdom (1204–1461) in the Pontos—the northeastern region of Anatolia near the Black Sea—Trabzon was the ancient capital of the Greek-speaking Greeks. It lasted until 1461, eight years after the fall of Byzantine Constantinople, when the Ottoman Turks conquered both cities.

Trabzon Economy

The British regarded Trabzon’s port as “the most significant of the Turkish Black Sea ports” in 1920. It traded to Tabriz and Mosul. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey agreed in 1911 to build a harbor at the port. A mole was constructed during the Russian occupation of Trabzon. They made a breakwater and oversaw creating an expanded pier to facilitate loading and unloading. Trabzon manufactured linen fabric, silver filagree, tanning, and minor quantities of cotton, silk, and wool in 1920. Trebizond-Platana Tobacco and hazelnuts were manufactured in Trabzon. It has “big leaves and a brilliant color,” according to the description. Trabzon was notorious for producing low-quality grains, mainly for local use.

Trabzon developed a white, green bean that was exported throughout Europe. As of 1920, it was the sole vegetable exported from the province. Trabzon was also well-known for its poultry farming. Sericulture was seen in the region before 1914. Copper, silver, zinc, iron, and manganese were all mined in the area. Coppersmiths preserved copper for local use. However, due to inadequate exporting and fuel supply during the Balkan Wars, manufacturing stopped.

30. Van – Van Buyuksehir Belediyesi

Van is a primarily Kurdish city in eastern Turkey’s Van Province, on the east side of Lake Van. As a significant urban area, the city has a lengthy history. In (2020), the population will be 511,000 people.

Van history

Archaeological excavations and surveys conducted in Van province suggest that human habitation in this area dates back at least 5000 BC. The sole source of knowledge on Van’s earliest culture is the Tilkitepe Mound, which is located on the banks of Lake Van and a few kilometers south of Van Castle.

  • A civilization that lived in Van are:
  • Armenian Kingdom in the 7th century BC, followed by the Persians in the mid-6th century BC.
  • The Urartian kingdom flourished in the ninth century BC.
  • The Artsrunis, the Byzantines, and the Sassanids.
  • The Seljuk Empire.
  • The Ottoman Period and the Turkish-Iranian rivalry
  • Van Economy
  • Van boasts stunning natural beauty and is a vital city in the tourist, agricultural, and manufacturing industries.

How are Big Cities Determined in Turkey?

A big city is a place where numerous people live and work in proximity. The population density is more significant in this region than in the surrounding area. It is seen in areas where buildings are close together. A major metropolis is the opposite of rural, where farmlands and nature may be found. Cities and towns are examples of urban regions.

The following are some of the most significant features of urban cities or large cities:

  • Large population size and density
  • Dissimilarity
  • Anonymity
  • Mobility and transitory
  • Relationship formality
  • Sixth, social distance
  • Regimentation
  • Personality segmentation
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