20 Famous Castles in Turkey
Whereas illustrious lords of history erected magnificent structures, armed troops erected dazzling fortresses. With a strong emphasis on common sense rather than grandeur and glory, castles have historically been used to defend against adversaries. Turkey has a fair number of castles situated along its coasts in noteworthy locations. Fortunately, they are no longer required in their traditional capacities, and the majority have evolved into well-known tourist attractions. Regardless, Some remain the focal point of continual unearthings by specialists eager to learn more about the history of these regions.
Turkey, which has absorbed various civilizations throughout its history, is one of the nations that attracted attention because of its quality, essential location, and proximity to the Middle East’s most punctual civilizations. When perusing vacation brochures about Turkey, you’ll notice that the country’s seas, shorelines, and tourism hubs are prominently featured; nevertheless, the country also boasts several castles that housed past empires and civilizations. Visiting these castles and forts may be necessary to grasp this history. Most castles in Turkey include remnants of ancient and medieval civilizations, whilst fortifications contain remnants of Hassock, Byzantine, and Seljuk kingdoms. In Turkish, castles are referred to as “Hisar” or “kale,” and therefore, the addition of “Kalesi” or “Hisari” follows the name of these castles. Castles and posts were constructed in strategic locations to watch the surrounding terrain due to its critical importance. That is why they are clustered on high points in cities: to flag, bring armed forces closer, and safeguard the tenants. Castles in Turkey are designed and laid out in a variety of distinct designs. Indeed, despite their apparent differences, their castles are comparable in that they are defensive buildings designed to withstand attacks. Nowadays, these castles do not serve a defensive purpose, but they provide amazing views of a city and, if one is fortunate enough, the ocean as well. There are many castles and fortresses in Turkey; we will examine a few of them to help you experience its diverse cultures and history.
1. Alanya Castle
Alanya Castle is a magnificent Seljuk structure perched on a 250-meter-high peninsula overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. Alanya Castle – formerly known as Alanya Fortification – has various fascinating places and constructions worth visiting today.
History of Alanya Castle
Alanya Castle’s History Alanya’s origins extend back thousands of years. References to the old city of Coracesium, the early settlement’s title, date all the way back to the fourth century BC. In the midst of considerable devastation, Alanya was renowned for its protection against privateers, who much valued its excellently delineated narrows and port. Whatever the case, Alanya was the site of a pivotal battle in Pompey the Great’s popular drive to rid the Mediterranean of privateers. The city remained under Roman and hence Byzantine administration for the remainder of the Domain era, but it was not one of the region’s more prominent cities during this time. It was not until 1221 that the city achieved true prominence. Following the Seljuk Turks’ conquest of the city, Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat I opted to establish Alanya as his winter residence, and the city reached its zenith. The harbor and harbor, referred to as the Tersane (dockyard) in the third century BC, was transformed into the most maritime base of the Seljuk naval force. Protective dividers were restored, and the Ruddy Tower, perhaps the most remarkable of the location’s features, was built. Alanya, which was included in the Hassock realm in 1471, developed into an important port for trading with other Mediterranean nations, particularly Egypt, Syria, and Cyprus, until the 18th century. As a result, Alanya is now the best-protected dockyard in the Mediterranean basin.
Alanya Castle today
The Ruddy Tower (sometimes referred to as Kizilkule) is one of the most notable components of Alanya Castle, standing 29 meters tall. The castle dividers begin here and wind their way through the center fortifications (Ehmedek), the Citadel or Inward Castle (Ickale), the Middle Easterner Holy person bastion (Arap Evliyasi), the Esat bastion, the weapons store (Tophane), and the noteworthy Tersane, before concluding at the Ruddy Tower. Within the Castle, boundaries include several unusual structures and sites, including Alaaddin Keykubat’s royal house, a few mosques (including the 16th-century Suleymaniye Mosque), and even a church confirming the city’s constantly diverse and liberal nature. Opposite the Suleymaniye Mosque may be a safe Bazaar or Bedesten, used as an exchanging base during the 14th and 15th centuries. Numerous additional structures and fortifications surround the Castle, including the Ehmedek, a weapons shop, and a mint (Darphane), even though no currency was ever minted there. There are far too many ocean caves that can be reached through a boat. The Citadel, which dates all the way back to the sixth century, has a theatre that now gives breathtaking views of the Mediterranean continent. Alanya Castle’s inclusion on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list attests to its unique and extensive history. Alanya was perhaps one of the best-defended towns in the Mediterranean, with almost 6 kilometers of defensive barrier reinforced by 140 bastions and 400 cisterns.
2. Simena Castle in Antalya, Turkey
Simena Castle, also known as ‘Kalekoy’ in Turkish, is located on Turkey’s magnificent Mediterranean coast in the Kekova District, between the developed town of Kas and Antalya, the province’s main city. Originally a magnificent Lycian town, the castle sits intaglio on a slope overlooking the Gokkaya bay. Villagers have settled on one side of the historic site, while a small cluster of local eateries may be found on the other, adjacent to a little harbor boasting daily fish catches. It’s an odd mix of old and unused since indigenous people have developed sophisticated lives while maintaining the affluent verifiable places. To the west, a series of rock-cut tombs are strewn over the slants of the castle; you may be able to descend from Simena Castle and view the interior. Simena’s castle town is frequently a highlight of our Kekova excursions.
Located on Turkey’s Mediterranean coast and overlooking the Discouraged City of Kekova, the village’s historic stone fortress is within the legitimately protected Kekova area and was once a vital watchtower in the region’s struggle against privateers.
While Simena was never a significant metropolis on the scale of neighboring Myra, archeologists believe that this stretch of shoreline has been inhabited from the 4th century BC – as evidenced by the discovery of Lycian, Roman, Byzantine, and Hassock artifacts. Between Kas and Demre in the Antalya region, the settlement’s primary function has been as a strategic town and seaport.
Why Is Visiting Simena So Special?
The fortress was constructed at the apex of the slope between the Middle Ages and the surrounding Lycian necropolis. Although the castle is designed in the Byzantine style today, it was built on an older structure established in Lycian times. The Knights of St. John built it to guard and secure the beach from intrusion. Numerous of the castle’s crenelated dividers are still standing. The little theater carved into the rocks with a capacity for 300 individuals is detailed to be the littlest theater within the Lycian locale in strikingly great condition. Additionally, the village that surrounds the castle evokes bygone eras. The village inhabitants dwell in little stone cottages carved into the hillside and connected by soak, contract, and twisting paths and stairs. (During the visiting season, they sell their wares to travelers ascending the treacherous climb to the castle.)
There are many bars and eateries – all of which seem to serve custom-made ice cream! And several annuities for pleasing guests. Ancient graves (sarcophagi) dot the landscape around the village, including an often photographed, partially submerged sarcophagus near the settlement’s typical port. To the east of the castle walls, a few notable free-standing Lycian graves remain in evidence today. Despite being destroyed by time, temperature, and conflict, the engravings remain visible, providing historians with critical information about the area’s most punctual people. The ruins at Simena are a portion of Turkey’s national historical center framework, so an ostensible charge is charged for sectioning into the castle dividers. (The Muze Kart may also be used as a means of transit.
There are many bars and eateries – all of which seem to serve custom-made ice cream! And some annuities for pleasing guests. Ancient graves (sarcophagi) dot the landscape around the village, including an often photographed, partially submerged sarcophagus near the settlement’s typical port. To the east of the castle walls, a few notable free-standing Lycian graves remain in evidence today. Despite being destroyed by time, temperature, and conflict, the engravings remain visible, providing historians with critical information about the area’s most punctual people. The ruins at Simena are a portion of Turkey’s national historical center framework, so an ostensible charge is charged for sectioning into the castle dividers. (The Muze Kart may also be used as a means of transit.
3. Kayseri Castle
Kayseri Castle is located in Kayseri, Turkey. It was erected in relic and was initially mentioned in a coin under Gordian III’s reign between 238 and 244 Advertisement. It underwent many stages, beginning with the Romans and continuing with the Byzantines, Danishmends, Seljuqs, Dulqadirs, Karamanids, and Ottomans. The castle, which is located inside the city of the same name, comprises an interior and external area with 18 towers.
The Castle’s Exterior Within the verified exterior castle of Kayseri, just a few sections remain intact today, although several sections have been cleaned away to establish their authenticity. The structures are known as Sivas Door, Kiçikap, and Boyac Entryway. These associations are disbanded. A few dividers and bastions remain from a department of the exterior fortification that stretched westward from Cumhuriyet Square to Duvenonü. Numerous sections of the dividers and towers line extending to Boyac Entryway, Kiçi Entryway, and Thick bushing entryway through the east course from Düvenönü corner bush are connected to the interior castle by Sivas Entryway and Unused Door. Regardless, after inquiry uncovered that the external fortification divisions curve west from the dense horoscope.
Mosque of Han. It is unknown where he returned from this location. There are several structures within the city dividers and bastions of the historical castle of Kayseri’s exterior section. The posts and towers increasing from the inside castle towards Duvenonu and the Strongly Horoscope are progressively put up with feet, vaults, and curved body dividers. Between Düvenönü and Thick Bushed entryways, the dividers, bushings, and towers form basic dividers and enormous body offices. This pattern of growth depicts the exterior castle’s construction and foundations during the Turkish Age. External post-stay barriers are practically non-existent anymore, resulting in a lack of data.
The inner castle is the section of the castle that stands alone and has many resources. Alaeddin Keykubad, one of the Seljuk sultans, rebuilt the inner castle in 1224. Others date the fortification’s development to the Byzantine period. Since the city’s establishment, a prominent commercial personality, army troops have stood at Kayseri in virtually every era during which merchants and affluent persons resided. The castle was the deciding factor in these assaults. It is believed that over 600 households resided within the castle, which was home to the people of Kayseri during various periods of time. There were several neighborhoods within the castle during this time period. North to south, the castle is 800 meters long and 200 meters wide. There are nineteen signs. Under these signs, the watch street runs.
The castle’s interior has two entrances, one to the northeast and one to the southwest, facing the Kazanclar Bazaar. However, due to the development’s interior, a third entrance was built from the region facing Cumhuriyet Square. There was a water trench on the castle’s exterior boundaries, but these ditches were filled to create a green zone in subsequent years. Kayseri is located on a flat plain due to its topographical nature. Therefore the castle should be located somewhat higher within this plain. Within Kayseri’s inner city, within the case of a tall tower, the Dizdarlk office is located within the castle’s central zone.
Due to the extensive modifications that occurred throughout the Turkish Age, the castles and towers of the castle and the door towers were enlarged to the needed extent. Currently, the construction is solid. The fortress, which was considered to have been erected during the Byzantine period, was reestablished under the reign of Alaeddin Keykubad I during the Anatolian Seljuk State. It was afterward restored and used in Karamanoullar and by the Ottomans. Within the 1950s, the Inward Castle was used as a vegetable market; at that time, little stores were erected on the inside and allocated to artists for exchange.
Before the southern doorway, there is a loophole that prevents the attack. Within the entrance seating plan, the castle door might be replaced with a hand or market door. It embodies the features of the Turkish Age in terms of architecture and design. The floor is embedded in a substantial structure. Before the entry, there is a large specialty with sweeping bends. This specialization is not reassuring in terms of front entrance security. On a marble piece over the doorway, there is a two-line Persian inscription.
It might be a door that appears in a jumbled arrangement at the interior castle’s eastern and southern corners. During the Turkish construction period, this side of the internal fortress was enhanced and ingeniously connected to the exterior city by structural additions. Between bushings 10 and 11, two passageways lead to two-row body dividers inside the same arrangement. The inside entry is of an antique design and reflects the Byzantine architectural style. This inner gate is located between the north (10) and the south (11). The moment outward opening (Middle Channel) is located in the center of the two bushings and threads through the front bushings. This entrance bears the hallmarks of the Turkish architectural era.
4. Bodrum Castle
The Bodrum Castle (Castle of St. Diminish) is found on a little rough promontory set between two shielded inlets in Bodrum, on the southwest coast of Anatolia. This landmass was possessed and known within the antiquated world as Zephyrion and was likely utilized as a raised base by the Byzantines within the early Center Ages and by the Turks. The Castle was built by the Arrange of St. John of Jerusalem (too called Knights of St.John, Knights Hospitallers, Knights of Rhodes) beneath the command of The Fantastic Ace Philibert de Naillac, at the starting of 15th century A.D., and ruled by them for nearly 120 a long time until the success of Rhodes by Suleiman I (Suleiman The Wonderful) in 1522. Within the Hassock Period, the Bodrum Castle was utilized as a little army base, and in 1895, it was changed into a jail. Amid the 1st World War, a French war vessel bombarded the castle on the 26th of May 1915.
This caused extraordinary harm to the castle, and the detainees were moved inland, emptying the castle. At that point, the Italians attacked Bodrum, and they posted their officers at the castle and utilized it as their central station. Taking after the victory of the Turkish War of Autonomy beneath the authority of Mustafa Kemal on the 5th of July 1921, the Italian military strengths were scattered. Between 1939-1945 amid the 2nd World War, the Castle was once more utilized as a military base but was emptied after the war. Nowadays, the Bodrum Castle is domestic to the Exhibition hall of Submerged Paleontology, one of a kind in Turkey and one of the foremost significant Underwater Archaic exploration Historical centers within the world.
The Bodrum Castle jam its unique arrange and character of the Knights’ period and speaks to Gothic engineering. Since The Arrange of the Knights of St. John was a multinational organization with individuals from a few nations of Europe, each Arrange had its possess tower, each in its claim fashion. Thus, the Castle comprises the French, Spanish (Wind), German, Italian and English Towers. The knights had put hundreds of painted coats of arms and carved reliefs on the dividers over the doors. Two hundred and forty-nine isolated plans still stay, counting those of grandmasters, castle commandants, nations, and individual coats of arms of knights and devout figures. Among those, the foremost recognizable one is the coat of arms of Lord Henry IV of Britain on the English Tower.
The protections were initially comprised of a single-window ornament divider. Still, an external divider strengthened with towers (Carretto and Gatineau Bastions) was included, and embrasures were embedded at certain focuses for cannons at approximately the center of the 15th century A.D. The other structures of the Castle are the north channel, expansive ravelin, harbor battery, harbor tower, forecourt, internal gatehouse, chapel, and inward bailey. Wide areas were exhumed within the common shake to make cisterns for collecting water within the inward castle.
In expansion to this fundamental character of the Castle, follows of the antiquated world can moreover be seen on the dividers since a few pieces of the Maussolleion ruins were one of the seven ponders of the antiquated world utilized as development materials. In addition, there are Hassock increments like a minaret on the chapel and a Turkish shower (Hamam). With these highlights, Bodrum Castle presents a multilayered verifiable and social point of view.
5. Rumeli Hisari in Istanbul
The Post of Rumeli Hisar was discovered on the European side of the Bosphorus, in Istanbul’s northernmost neighborhood, and may serve as an eye-catching marker. Each year, hundreds of thousands of visitors to this wonderful city follow the centuries-old tradition of taking a Bosphorus cruise to view the magnificent fortress from afar. However, few realize that the structure played a role in the 1453 Attack and Fall of Constantinople, that its extraordinary shape and subtle elements represent the verifiable advancements that led to this world-changing event, the end of the Byzantine Domain after over 1,000 years and the establishment of the Footrest Realm as a major player for five centuries.
The term Rumeli Hisar, which translates as “Fortress Inside the Romans’ Arrivals,” refers to the fortress on the European or Byzantine side of the Bosphorus. Originally known as Boazkesen Castle, it was dubbed the “Throat Cutter” because of its purpose of cutting the straits – or the Bosphorus’s throat. It was constructed in 1452 by Fatih Sultan Mehmed, also known as Mehmed the Vanquisher or simply Mehmed II, at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus channel, directly opposite Anadolu Hisar – another Footrest fortification on the Anatolian side that was constructed approximately 60 years prior (1390-1395) as a perception post and secure point for a small number of troops. Despite centuries of damage, repairs, and modifications, Rumeli Hisar continues to breathe history; its extraordinary centrality is based on a few distinct and well-defined components that are inextricably linked to the common circumstances and developments that shaped the history of the Late Middle Ages and the pivotal events it was a part of. To begin, though, two fundamental focuses on castles and fortresses should be recognized. First, it is critical to establish beyond a reasonable doubt that discussing castles indefinitely implies locking in with the subject of combat and the exterior and defense preparations of nations, regardless of period. At the time, medieval castles developed in lockstep with military advancements and standards of their day. This is true for all of the castles’ primary functions, specifically acting as a) military fortifications, b) residences for neighborhood rulers, c) private zones for an area’s whole people, or d) a mixture of those functions. Rumeli Hisar has around 30.000 square meters (approximately 7.4 sections of land) and genuinely resembles a small walled town atop the ocean. The dividers enclose an amorphous, typically rectangular zone, the shape of which is determined by the angle of the arrival. They consist of three massive towers (two on the landward side and one on the beach) and thirteen small watchtowers of varying shapes placed along with the dividers between the largest towers. The northernmost tower is shaped like a 28m (92ft) tall, nine-story barrel with a width of 23m (76ft).
Three enormous towers, a standard feature of Footrest castles, combined with creative emplacements for cautious guns and thick partitions safeguarding the fortification against hostile weaponry, transformed Rumeli Hisar into an exceptionally secure fortress. This distinguishes it from the simpler and more traditional Hassock castles seen throughout the Balkans (e.g., Albania, Edirne, and Thrace). Within half a century, the Ottomans had developed the most advanced and massive cannons of their time. The abandoned castle with its solid dividers was to be used as the base for Footrest hostile assaults, even though the period’s cannonball technology proved ineffective at crushing dividers of such thickness. Within the first part of the 15th century, the invention of black powder and the proliferation of ordnance altered all defensive and hostile combat facets, impacting weapons and strongholds. Clearly, the Republic of Venice and its master modelers and engineers advanced military defensive engineering, notably Aegean.
6. Mamure Castle in Mersin
Mamure Castle is located on the Antalya-Mersin Thruway, 6 kilometers south of Anamur and 216 kilometers west of Mersin.
This castle, which spans 23.500 square meters, is regarded as one of Turkey’s most conspicuous and secure. While the exact period of construction of the castle is uncertain, it is widely considered to have been erected by the Romans in the third or fourth centuries, based on 1988 unearthings by the Directorate of Anamur Gallery. These excavations discovered archeological remnants, including mosaic floor coverings that belonged to a Late Roman city (3rd-4th century A.D.) named “Ryg Monai,” a city that was unmistakably Roman at that time period. On the other side, it is also referred to be the Anemurium Collectible City’s external defense fortress. The Castle was afterward expanded and repurposed for use by the Byzantine Domain and Campaigns. When Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Aladdin Keykubat I agreed to the castle’s destruction in 1221, he constructed a larger fortress in part using the foundations of the old castle.
It was afterward included in the Karamanid kingdom. According to Sikari (the Karamanids’ historian), Mahmut of Karaman defeated Anamur and Taseli after being imprisoned and crushed by enemies. He then took the fortress, rebuilt it, and renamed it Mamure (effluent). Despite the specific date being uncertain, the fortress was seized during Mahmut’s reign (1300–1308), according to an engraving created by King Ibrahim II of Karaman in 1450. The Hassock Empire annexed the fortress in 1475. The castle was renovated under the Footrest reign in the 15th, 16th, and 18th centuries, and a section of the fortress was used as a caravanserai.
On the arrival side, the castle is surrounded by a canal. The roadway on the defense connects the 39 towers (four of which are larger than the rest) with a portion of the fortifications. Within the castle, there are three primary yards: west, east, and south, which are separated by towering dividers. To the west of the yard is an exterior castle, a small complex consisting of a single tower mosque, the remnants of a Hamam (Turkish bath), a fountain, warehouses, and cisterns. An interior yard within the east has seven bastions of varying shapes atop the towering divider that forms its northwest boundary. Alongside the divider, the bastions on the north-eastern section of it have been destroyed. Finally, an internal citadel within the yard to the south constructed over the rocks, the highest watchtower with the best view, a 22-meter-tall interior bastion, five other watchtowers, and the remnants of a beacon?
The Karamanids constructed the single-minaret mosque, which reflects the features of sixteenth-century Turkish architecture. The historical mosque is still operational and has been renovated. Additionally, the Karamanids are believed to have erected the Hamam to the north of the Castle. The entrance portion of the Hamam has been destroyed, while the remaining portions retain its intaglio. Mamure Castle is approximately 1500 years old and is among the best-preserved Medieval castles on the Mediterranean coast. It is a genuine medieval stronghold built in the styles of the many conquering armies: the Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Karamanids, and Ottomans. Thus, it embodies these civilizations’ cultures. Additionally, it is an ideal site for defense because of its visual dominance of the surrounding terrain and sea.
Mamure Castle is an exceptional example of Medieval fortification in terms of stratigraphic survival. It exemplifies key periods in human history by being the home of several civilizations, including the Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Karamanids, and Ottomans. The Castle’s assets, including a mosque, a hammam, a fountain, warehouses, and cisterns, were constructed during the reigns of many civilizations and exhibited architectural traits unique to those nations. Since each civilization that has ruled over it has rebuilt the castle, it has generally retained its integrity to the present day. However, the rampart to the south of the Castle has been destroyed by the might of the water. To counteract this, a groin composed of rock piles has been constructed. Finally, the Directorate General of Foundations restored the castle and mosque in the 1960s.
7. Anavarza Castle
Anavarza Castle, also known as Anavarza Kalesi in the region, is located on a mountain near the town of Dilekkaya in the province of Ankara in Turkey.
Anavarza Castle was built on a two hundred meters high magnificent protrusion of rock and is visible from Yilan, Toprakkale, Amuda, Tumlu, and Sis castles. The Sombaz Florida keys stream flows over the outcrop’s east face before joining the Ceyhan stream. The whole west slope of the outcrop is made up of very vertical cliffs. Below the west flank is the site of the ancient city of Anazarbus, of which nothing remains. The fortress of Anazarbus would be the major fortification on this website. Throughout the first century, the town thrived. It was eventually called Justinopolis and then Justinianopolis. Arab raids in the latter part of the seventh century devastated the city and left it abandoned until it was en bloc moved by the Abbasids. In 796 A.D., the Abbasid Muhammadan, Harun al-Rashid, reinforced the site (who conjointly engineered Haruniye Castle). Throughout the ninth century, the Byzantines invaded the site many times. Finally, the invasion in 855 A.D. caused such destruction that the Muhammadan al-Mutawakkil was forced to rebuild the place.
The Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas ruthlessly captured 962 cities. After repairing the walls, the Byzantines stationed a Byzantine garrison within the fortress. Anavarza Castle was taken by the soldiers of the First Crusade in late 1097 or early 1098 and was afterward integrated into Bohemond’s I lordship of town. Around 1110, Thoros I, Lord of Armenian Cilicia and a member of the Rubenid line, captured Anavarza Castle. The castle was rebuilt in 1114 following a catastrophic earthquake. In 1137, the fortress was captured during a thirty-seven-day military blockade by Byzantine Emperor John II Komnenos to reclaim Cilicia. Throughout the following decade, the fortress changed hands several times between Armenians and Byzantines.
At the end of the twelfth century, the fortress remained in Armenian hands. The castle functioned as the administrative headquarters of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Around 1187/88, Vicar of Christ, King of Hayastan, renovated the keep. Within a few years, the Armenian Kingdom’s executive headquarters were relocated north from Anavarza Castle to Sis Castle. Mamluk attacks on Anavarza Castle began in the 1270s. In 1374, the Armenians were permanently excluded from the fortress. A Mamluk garrison was stationed at the fortress during the majority of the fifteenth century. Anavarza Castle is divided into two baileys: an oblong outer bailey to the south and a smaller, more narrow inner bailey to the north. A square keep guards the entrance to the inner bailey at the outcrop’s narrowest point. Anavarza Castle is open to the public. A magnificent castle ruin in a lovely setting is offered.
8. Ankara Castle
The Turkish capital’s castle is one of the city’s oldest landmarks, dating all the way back to the Roman, Seljuk, and Ottoman Empires. From its position atop the town, here’s a look at the structure’s history, which has become a top-rated attraction for visitors and residents.
Although the exact era of its construction is uncertain, some think the capital of Turkey Castle was constructed by the Hittites (an ancient kingdom that controlled north-central Asia Minor around 1600 BC), a UN agency that maintained a military garrison in the capital of Turkey. However, because of a scarcity of archaeological evidence to support this assertion, the castle is frequently associated with the Roman, Byzantine, and Seljuk centuries, during which the building underwent several restorations. The castle occupies most of the height, providing a panoramic view over the town and the red-tiled roofs of former Ankara’s ancient residences. Additionally, there is an outside wall with twenty towers located on the outer limit of the former town and was designed as a protective barrier. The fort covers around 43 square kilometers (16.7 square miles) and is surrounded by a wall that rises to 14-16 meters (50-52.5 feet) in height and features forty-two towers. The castle’s tallest purpose, Akkale or Alitaş, towers above the southeastern corner. One of the two castle gates also features an associated epitaph from the Ilkhanate Empire (the Mongol Empire’s southwestern region). The structure’s northern part features inscriptions from the Seljuk Empire.
While the outside wall sustained damage throughout time, the castle itself remained intact. During the eighth and ninth centuries, remnants of Roman constructions inside the town were used as a building material, with marble blocks and pillar heads still visible within the castle’s south-facing portions. Indeed, the castle has been subjected to multiple invasions and has been subjected to several repairs and restorations, beginning with the assault of Galata (a domain in Ankara) in the second century before Christ. Emperor Caracalla rebuilt the walls in 217 AD, but the fortress was virtually devastated when the Persians attacked Emperor Severus Alexander between 222 and 260 AD. The Romans rebuilt the building in the seventh century, and by 688, Constantine the Great had constructed a new outer wall to fit the city’s enlarged limits. The Seljuk Empire captured the fortress in 1073, and during the Ottoman era, the stronghold was restored in 1832 by Maktul Ibrahim Pacha’s son. Nowadays, the castle may be a visual amalgamation of many historical eras, each of which left its own imprint somehow. The former capital of Turkey’s dwellings square measure at intervals from the castle’s an outside wall is also really gorgeous, constructed of wood, mud-brick, and tile. From the castle, the contrast of Turkey’s former and modern capitals is rather striking and maybe an excellent place to view as the sun sets over the lovely capital town.
9. Yoros Castle
Yoros Castle, domestically called Yoros Kalesi, lies on a hill next to the village of Anadolu Kavagı, on the Asian facet of the Bosphorus Strait within the province of Istanbul in Turkey.
Yoros Castle was probably built for the first time during Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in the second half of the thirteenth century. A now-defunct castle on the opposite side of the Bosphorus at Rumeli Kava was responsible for regulating marine trade through the strait. A massive chain might be stretched between the two locations to close the strait to hostile ships returning from the Black Sea.
In 1305, Ottoman soldiers captured the fortress for the first time, although the Byzantines swiftly recaptured it. In 1391, it was recaptured by the Ottoman great Turk Bayezid I as part of his preparations for a siege on Constantinople. He then added the castle to the south as his field headquarters throughout the building process. In 1399, the Byzantines attempted but failed to reclaim Yoros Castle. The Ottomans thereafter maintained uninterrupted control of the citadel until 1414, when the Genovese captured it. Following great Turk Mehmed II’s capture of Constantinople in 1453, the presence of the Genovese at such a key fortress posed a danger to the new Ottoman capital. As a result, Mehmed promptly drove the Genovese away. However, the Genovese’s 40-year occupancy did provide the fortress with the gift cognomen of ‘Genoese Castle.’ The Ottomans rebuilt and strengthened the fortifications, establishing a customs office, quarantine, checkpoint, and a garrison of troops there.
In the mid-18th century, great Turk Osman III refortified Yoros Castle, and grand Turk Abdul Hamid I added several watchtowers. Following this, it gradually deteriorated. The castle was abandoned during the Turkish Republic. The castle features an uneven floor layout with an upper and lower castle. The domain of the lower castle remains a military outpost, demonstrating the strategic significance of the position. Yoros Castle is often visited, but only the outside of the taller castle is accessible; metal gates bar the interior. Regrettable, as this might be a charming castle in an excellent position.
10. Boyabat Castle
Boyabat is a city and district in Sinop Province in Turkey’s Euxine Sea area. Mehmet Ermis is the city manager (AKP).
Boyabat city was constructed beneath a magnificent fortress ( Boyabat castle) that has certainly been inactive since approximately 1300 A.D. but might be as recent as 2800 years. The city is crossed by the Kazdere/Gazidere stream, a branch of the Gk stream. It slashes the rock upon which the castle is built with a spectacular attempt at vertical walls. The castle facet’s wall features a window in the rock face that illuminates declivitous tunnels leading to a freshly found huge Roman subterranean settlement. Additionally, the tunnels might have been used to transport water and provide safe passage during the siege.
The castle commands a commanding vantage point over the Gokrmak depression. This depression is long and runs parallel to the shore of the Euxine Sea. It creates a natural east-west road beside the similarly situated Yesirmak (river) depression to the east. It has been used as a trading route since antiquity, possibly as part of the Silk Road. The fortress may have been used to defend this commercial route. Due to its proximity to Duragan, Hanonu, and Taskopru should have offered a secure stopping point for caravans. Boyabat’s earlier history may date all the way back to the Bronze Age when it was ruled by Kaskians, Hittites, Paphlagonians, Persians, Lydians, the Pontus kingdom, and Romans. It functioned as a boundary fortress between the geographical region (later Roman Empire) and the Pontus kingdom cardinal year earlier. Boyabat was a component of the Turkish Empire’s Kastamonu Vilayet in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
11. Silifke Castle
Silifke Castle, locally known as Silifke Kalesi, is located on a hill inside the city of the same name in the Turkish province of Mersin.
Silifke Castle is perched on a huge hill near the Göksu river’s delta (the medieval Calycadnus). The trendy city of Silifke and its historical predecessor, Seleucia, are adjacent to and on the east slope of the castle outcrop. The castle’s lengthy and relatively symmetrical protrusion stands almost eighty-six meters above the sea level above the Göksu canon’s southern entrance. This defensive fortification dominates the vital coastal road from the river’s geographic area.
The Byzantines built the earliest fortress on this location during the seventh and eleventh centuries as a defense against the Arabs. Around 1100, Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos appointed royal officer Eustathius as associate degree admiral and fortified Silifke and a large portion of northern Korykos. The strategy was to DEfend it against the Crusader Bohemund I de Guiscard’s possible takeover. At Silifke and Korykos, an enormous garrison was kept under the leadership of an explicit Strategus Strabo. Around 1190, the fort passed to Baron Leo II (later King Leo I), and the Byzantines never again governed it. Silifke Castle was originally granted to numerous Armenian nobility by King Roman Catholic Pope until 1210 when he handed it to the Knights Hospitaller to defend his realm against Seljuk invasions. Guérin DE Montaigu, Aimery DE kiss of peace (a previous castellan of Margat Fortress), and Féraud DE Barras progressively held leadership of the castle from then on. Between 1210 and the early 1220s, they completely rebuilt the colossal castle. In 1216/17, an attack on the fortress by Konya’s king was repulsed.
In 1226, Prince Philip of the town was poisoned at Sis Castle when he was a prisoner. Isabella I, Queen of the Republic of Armenia, Isabella’s 12-year-old widow, took sanctuary within the fortress. Constantine of Barbaron, the regent of the Armenian realm, arranged for his own son, Hethum, to marry Isabella and commanded that Bertrand de Thessy, the castellan of Silifke Castle, return her quickly. The Hospitallers, unwilling to bear the humiliation of surrendering Isabella or to engage in combat with Constantine’s gathered soldiers, assuaged their consciences by mercantilism him the fortress with Isabella within. Silifke Castle was enlarged in 1236. Guiscard was the European commander of the fortress in 1248. Gedik Ahmet’s authority conquered and seized the fortress in 1471. The large gap in the Japanese wall is said to have been related to conquering. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of later historical information on the fortress. Nowadays, Silifke Castle is open to the public. Its outside wall, encircled by a dry ditch, has been preserved. Almost everything within the castle has been reduced to rubble. It’s a charming castle.
12. Istanbul City Walls
The Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II designed the first town walls of Istanbul between 413 and 477. They stretch over 6-7 kilometers, beginning with the Marble Tower on the Marmara shore and ending at the Golden Horn. The Yedikule Walls were constructed between 1457 and 1458 by swayer Mehmet, the conqueror. Sixteen gates pierce these fortifications. The walls are made up of three stages of defense: inner walls, outside walls, and a trench. The interior walls are between 3 and 4 meters thick and 13 meters high. The exterior walls, which are 15 meters away, are 2 meters thick and 10 meters high. There is a ditch before the outer walls. The Istanbul town walls area unit is now undergoing renovations as part of the UNESCO preservation program.
13. Bozcaada Castle
As you reach the island by boat, the first thing that will catch your eye is the island’s enormous, beautiful castle. Do not be surprised to see such a massive castle in the midst of this apparent town. The castle’s magnificence recalls the island’s prosperous history. Due to the island’s location at the mouth of the Dardanelles and its proximity to the earth, it has been a target for assaults over the years. All the civilizations which called this place home felt secure behind the shelter of this colossal castle. It remains but has long forgotten its purpose, waiting for interested visitors to return. Since the soldiers stationed at the town walls, numerous changes have occurred to keep an eye out for pirate ships. What has been constant is the northeast wind, the ‘poyraz’ processing above its head, and the crows soaring higher than.
Bozcaada Castle is one of Turkey’s most well-preserved castles. However, the former known as Tenedos UN agency engineered it for the first time, and no one knew. The current shape of the castle dates all the way back to the time of swayer Mehmet the Conqueror, when it was rebuilt on the remnants of a stronghold used by the Phoenicians, Genovese, and Venetians (1455). Throughout the duration of Köprülü Mehmet Pasa, it received extensive repair following the devastation inflicted by the Venetians’ and Ottomans’ wars (1657). Finally, it was virtually completely rebuilt under Mahmut II’s reign and has perpetuated its appearance (1815).
The castle, located on the island’s northeastern tip, is surrounded by a previously filled with water ditch. Previously, the castle’s entrance was through a suspension bridge. However, there is now a fixed bridge that leads to the entryway. And there is no one inside the castle once inhabited by the Turkish inhabitants, except from their two mosques. Instead, there is an area within the inner fortress |a space dedicated to exhibiting amphorae discovered on the island. Additionally, numerous tombstones and historical items discovered on the island square measure being shown within the castle.
14. Harput Castle
Harput, a historic Armenian city, is located near Elazig in eastern Turkey. While it is most known for the beautiful Harput Castle, which was built by the Urartus over 2,000 years ago as a defensive construction, Harput’s history extends all the way back to 2000 B.C. It contains a deposit containing items discovered inside the space, churches, and mosques.
The Urartu Kingdom constructed the fortress in the seventh century B.C. The Persians conquered it in the sixth century B.C. Between the fourth and eleventh centuries B.C., the fortress was ruled by Armenians, Romans, Sassanids, Japanese Romans, Abbasids, and Japanese Romans. Cubukoullar was king in 1085, Artukogullari was king in 1112, and Seljuks were king in 1234. The fortress became the focal point of Artuqid Bey Belek Gazi and Seljuk Bey Alaeddin Keykubad. It changed hands again in 1366 due to the conflict between the Dulkadiroullar and the Akkoyunlu States. In 1465, Hasan Bahadr Han, the ruler of Akkoyunlu, confiscated the fortress to anesthetize the administration of Akkoyunlu. The Turkish Empire seized the Harput region and defensive fortifications under the reign of Yavuz king Selim in 1515.
With approval from Turkey’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the most recent restoration work began in 2005 under the direction of Veli Sevin and continued until 2009.
 Simultaneously, attempts to preserve the Ottoman Neighborhood within Harput Castle, which was sparsely occupied from the mid-17th to the early twentieth centuries, were included within the purview of Ottoman ethnography. Another noteworthy attraction within a 10-minute drive of Harput is Buzluk Cave, which has become legendary for its natural ice creation over the recent warm months. It is one of the few caves of its sort in the world, where the natural morphological features of the cave and the subterranean airflow enable it to be warm in the winter and cool in the summer.
15. Koz Castle
Koz Castle or Kursat Castle is a castle located in the Altinozu district of Turkey’s Hatay Province. It is built on a small hill where the Kuseyr Creek begins. It was constructed entirely of building blocks by the princedom of Antakya. The castle was originally equipped with a gate to the north; however, this gate no longer exists, and therefore the northern wing of the castle has been leveled, except a few ancient barns. Nevertheless, several bastions of the castle remain standing to this day. Cursat Castle was first recorded in 1133, captured by Fulk, King of Israel’s capital. By 1155, the Latin Patriarch of Antakya, Aimery of Limoges, had acquired the fortress, which he renamed ‘Castrum Patriarchae’ (Patriarch’s Castle). In 1180, on the instructions of Pope tzar, Aimery condemned the patrician of Antakya Bohemond III for personal issues. Bohemond III, enraged by such summons, imprisoned Cursat until King Baldwin IV of the kingdom of Israel intervened.
In 1188, Aimery stopped the Ayyubid monarch Saladin’s forces from attacking Cursat by paying him a sum of money from his treasury. In 1225, the Latin Patriarch of Antakya Rainier of Antakya returned to Italia, ascending to the mark of the castle of Cursat, where the paternal treasury remained intact at the time. Pope Innocent IV had directed that the entire church government revenue from Antakya and Cyprus be used for three years to repair and expand Cursat, which increased its defenses by 1256. Thus, the fortress resisted a military siege by Mamluk forces headed by Baibars in 1268, when Cursat was surrounded by Muslim-controlled territory in the fall of Antakya. The castellan of the castle in the patriarch’s name was a knight named Sir William. The United Nations agency tried to maintain cordial relations with adjacent Muslim emirs, notably Soghr and Bagras. As a result, Baibars agreed to refrain from attacking the castle because William shared his wealth with his Muslim neighbors. Later in life, William became a monk and delegated castle control to his father, Bastard. On April 13, 1275, the latter was captured in a Mamluk ambush and imprisoned in Damascus. Later, the castle was enclosed and finally abandoned on November 14, 1275.
Anadoluhisar Castle, as it is locally known, is located in the Beykoz neighborhood of the city of Istanbul, on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Strait in the province of Istanbul in Turkey. Anadoluhisar refers to a defensive construction (-Hisar) in Indo-European (Anadolu-). The fortress was built between 1393 and 1394 on the order of Ottoman Grand Turk Bayezid I as part of his preparations for a siege on the then-Byzantine town of the metropolitan center. However, Bayezid’s intentions for a besieging were thwarted as the Ottomans needed to resolve various issues within their realms. Nevertheless, it was unquestionably designed near the mouth of the Göksu stream, at the Bosphorus’s narrowest point.
In the mid-15th century, great Turk Mehmed II strengthened the castle by adding a two-meter-thick wall and three more watchtowers forming a bailey and a storehouse and dwellings. In addition, Mehmed II constructed a sister edifice to Anadoluhisar across the Bosphorus called Castle in 1452 as part of his intentions to resurrect a military effort to conquer the urban core. In 1453, the two fortresses operated in unison to block all marine commerce on the Bosphorus, assisting the Ottomans during their siege of the city.
After the town center surrendered in 1453 at the end of a 53-day siege, Anadoluhisar Castle operated as a customs house and military jail and fell into disrepair throughout the years. As time passed, the bailey’s walls were breached, and a road was constructed through it. Finally, in the 1990s, the castle was renovated but never reopened to the public. At the time, Anadoluhisari Castle was open to the public. The road on which it is settled winds it the way through the bailey. Regrettably, the interior castle is often closed; visitors will only view it outside—a charming castle in a charming area.
17. Cesme Castle
Cesme Castle locally referred to as Cesme Kalesi, is located in the port of the same-named city in Turkey’s province of Ankara. It was not celebrated when Cesme Castle was constructed. Within the fifteenth century, there may have been an older Ottoman or Genoese fortress here. It is almost certain that the current was constructed around 1508, during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II. It had been constructed in response to Venetian raids on the territory during the preceding decades and defended the region’s then-vital harbor of Cesme. At that time, the ocean would have reached the western walls of the castle.
After being attacked by Russian ships, the fortress was restored in 1770, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. Cesme Castle was designed to be built on a sloping site and features a rectangular floor plan. It is composed of three|of three baileys and is surrounded by three defensive walls. It has a small museum devoted to the history of the globe and, more specifically, the Conflict of Chesma; an 18th-century battle fought inside the city’s harbor. For a little price, access is available.
Kizkalesi Castle, or Maiden’s Castle as it is affectionately called locally, is situated on a little low island approximately 400 meters off the coast in the same-named city’s harbor. In the Turkish province of Mersin.
Together with the alternate Korykos Castle on solid ground, this maritime castle secured the port of Korykos, and their square measurements were virtually similar after all their histories. In addition, there used to be an associate degree ancient harbor town here called Korykos or Corycus. While it is possible that the location of Korykos was highly defended before the Arab invasions, there is little evidence to support this.
Korykos was captured by the Byzantines around 1099. The fortresses were almost certainly built during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Apart from renovation during and after the Armenian period of possession in the late twelfth century (far more extensive in the ocean castle than in the land castle), each castle’s circuit walls and towers date from the early twelfth century. The emperor’s female descendant, Pakistani monetary unit Comnena, informs the North American country that the royal man Eustathius was dispatched as an admiral to fortify Korykos. The goal was to protect the American state from possible takeover by Crusader Bohemund I de Guiscard. At Korykos, an imposing garrison was maintained under the direction of a precise Strategus Strabo. It is uncertain precisely when the Armenians took the Byzantine strongholds at Korykos.
By 1198/99, the site appears to have been administered by the Catholic Pope, King of Armenian Cilicia, since Simon, the Baron of Korykos, was present during his installation. Following Vahram’s brief tenure as Lord of Korykos (1210-12), the post was held by the Hethumid Baron Oshin until the late 1260s. In the fourth quarter of the thirteenth century, Grigoris was succeeded as lord of the port by the Armenian scholar Hethum. He perished tragically a few years later in an extremely bloody fight against the Mamluks. In 1318, Hethum’s son, another Oshin, seized 300 men from the garrison at Korykos and drove away a gang of Turks (temporarily). In 1360, the tzar, the King of Cyprus, took control of Korykos as it became obvious that the Mamluks would soon conquer all of Cilicia. A Lusignan politician was dispatched from Cyprus to oversee the port. Korykos inhabitants were able to repel a Karamanid assault in 1367 with the assistance of Cypriots. This fortified harbor operated as a prosperous toll station until 1448, when the Karamanids captured it.
Because Kizkalesi castle is protected by a natural sea barrier and the island’s dangerous shoals, the Byzantines built just one circuit, a rather geometrical one with square towers. The castle’s elegant construction block comprises materials salvaged from the adjacent abandoned late antique village. This ancient structure exists only on the south and east, in stark contrast to the Armenian restoration on the northwest (with rounded salients). The layout is in keeping with the island’s geography. At the moment, Kizkalesi resembles a small resort hotel. Kizkalesi Castle is open for visits. I’m not sure whether there is associate degree admissions money. Unfortunately, I did not have time to see this gorgeous coastal castle. As a result, all of my photographs were taken from the beach and Korykos Castle early in the morning.
19. Marmaris Castle
Marmaris Castle is located in Turkey’s Mugla region. Suleyman the great rebuilt the fortress during his invasion against Rhodes.
Suleyman the Magnificent rebuilt and expanded the Castle during his 1522 conquest of the Greek island of Rhodes. In addition, Suleyman the Magnificent utilized the fortress as a military station. Throughout World War I, the castle was artillery discharged by the French Fleet and sustained significant damage.
Until the 1970s, the castle served as an associate degree housing facility. Within the castle area, there are eighteen dwellings, a fountain, and an arc. Finally, the castle was restored between 1980 and 1990, and so the website has functioned as a repository for associate degree archeology since 1991. A magnificent environment surrounds the Castle. It is one of the most straightforward vistas high over Marmaris harbor. Highly recommended for everyday visits and taking in the fascinating Marmaris scenery at all hours of the day and night.
20. Trabzon Castle
This castle is located in northwest Turkey and dates all the way back to the Byzantine Era when it was constructed entirely of stone. The three components of this fort are as follows:
The upper level is dubbed Yukari Hisar.
OrtaHisar is the Middle Level.
The Lower Level is referred to as Osagi Hisar.
The Walls of Trabzon (or “Walls of Trebizond”) are defensive walls surrounding Trabzon, a northeastern Turkey town. Generally, the defenses are referred to as the Trabzon Castle (Turkish: Trabzon Kalesi). They did not, however, function as a castle but rather as town walls. The walls, which run from a hill on the backside of the modern city to the Black coast, were constructed based on qualitative study dating all the way back to the Roman era using cut stones from prior constructions on the site. Additionally, the town was separated into three sections by the walls: the upper city or “fortress” (Yukari Hisar), the central city (Orta Hisar), and the lower city (Asag Hisar). The upper and middle towns are bounded to the west and east by steep ravines formed by the Zagros (Iskeleboz) and Tabakhane (Kuzgun) streams, respectively, whilst the lower city stretches west of Zagros (see the arrange on the right). Most of the fort’s walls remain sturdy, approximating the monument’s potential, but the beauty has been lost. It is one of the town’s oldest structures. The fort’s oldest section dates from the first century AD, during the rule of the Roman Empire. In addition, there are twentieth-century Christian relics.
What are the Other Places like Castles in Turkey?
A castle is a fortified edifice predominantly constructed by aristocracy or monarchy and military groups during the Middle Ages. While students debate the definition of “castle,” they frequently consider it to refer to the private fortified house of a lord or noble. European-style castles emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries, following the fall of the Carolingian Empire and the division of its land among individual lords and princes. Nowadays, companies use castle design structures due to their prominence, and most people are interested in these structures. Here are some examples of castle-style homes. comparable to Turkish structures
The Burj Al Babas (Burj Al Babas) project involved constructing 732 three-story luxury homes almost identical to one another. They had Gothic, English, and Yankee-style elements. Meanwhile, cylindrical towers with dormer windows and square towers with balustrades were influenced by the Galata Tower in the city, which was built in the late Middle Ages by the urban center, and by the alleged Maiden’s Tower, which is located on an island in the Bosphorus Strait, a few hundred meters from the town.
According to the original brochure, the development center would have a domed building housing a shopping mall, health and beauty facilities such as Turkish baths, a mosque, a theater, and other amenities accommodating inhabitants.
Vialand is a theme park featuring attractions for all ages and a retail center with dining and entertainment. The structures resemble a castle construction, somewhat like a funfair park.